354267198 hp final edited 1 edited

HP Final Questions
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How can one ensure cultural competency within practice?
Working with patients from diverse backgrounds requires healthcare professionals to be
culturally competent (Chu et al., 2016). Cultural competence requires professionals to identify
differences in others and respect them. Healthcare professionals can ensure cultural competence
by taking a course or workshop to understand the demands, awareness, skills, and knowledge of
such competence in practice. The professionals should then obtain certification in cultural
competence after completion of the workshop or the course. They then should perform an
assessment of cultural competence to determine their strengths and weaknesses working with
people from diverse backgrounds. The professionals should then engage directly with patients in
cross-cultural interactions, ensuring that they apply skills in effective communication and the
elimination of language barriers (Chu et al., 2016). In case of language barriers, using a
translator is advisable.
How does Healthy People 2020 address health challenges?
Healthy people 2020 helps to address health challenges through improving public health
via the detection of disease globally, responding to health challenges, preventing diseases, and
controlling the health challenges. The Healthy People 2020 articulates that global health
challenges have the capacity to affect the health of the U.S. population, and therefore identifying
them and taking preventive and curative measures is fundamental (Healthy People 2020, 2021).
An example of global health issues includes the H1N1 influenza outbreak. To effectively address
the health challenges, Healthy People 2020 attempts to promote health abroad, participate in the
prevention of the international spread of disease, and ultimately protect the health of the U.S.
population. Ultimately, Healthy People 2020 envision a population that will attain high-quality,
longer lives free of preventable diseases, premature deaths, injury, and disability.
What are the levels of the Social-ecological framework for nutrition
The food environment is defined as the collective economic, policy, physical, and socialcultural opportunities, surroundings, and conditions influencing nutritional status and choices
(Herforth & Ahmed, 2015). The different levels of a social-ecological framework for nutrition
decisions include individual factors such as psychological factors, gene-environment
interactions, and demographic factors. There are also environmental settings such as schools,
workplaces, homes, and recreational facilities (Herforth & Ahmed, 2015). The next level is the
sectors of influence such as industry factors, agriculture, community design, government, and
public health. Lastly, there are social and cultural norms and values such as religion, lifestyle,
belief systems, and heritage.
Describe four basic food safety principles.
The first basic food safety principle is “clean,” requiring people to often wash their hands
and surfaces to avoid germs from causing food poisoning. Hands should be washed for 20
seconds with soap before, during, and after preparing food and before eating (CDC, 2020). Fresh
vegetables and fruits should be rinsed under running water. The second principle is separate to
avoid cross-contamination. Poultry, eggs, seafood, raw meat can easily spread germs to other
foods; hence should be separated. The third principle is to cook to the right temperature, capable
of killing germs (CDC, 2020). The fourth principle is chill which requires that food be promptly
refrigerated at 400F.
Choose a functional health pattern and describe it.
The activity and exercise health pattern is one of the most practised functional health
patterns. To assess the pattern, one should check on the activities of daily living that require
energy expenditure. The health pattern requires exercise, leisure activities, and self-care
activities (Edelman et al., 2021). The body systems involved in the activity and exercise
health pattern include muscular-skeletal, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems.
What is culturally competent care?
Culturally competent care entails care that respects diversity and cultural factors in
the patient population. It is care that considers the various cultural related differences that can
affect care delivery, such as attitudes, behaviors, communication styles, language (Beaulieu
et al., 2019). The congruence in these aspects of care helps healthcare professionals work
effectively in cross-cultural situations.
Incorporating activity and exercise in a family setting for health
Activity and exercise within the family are crucial as it leads to a healthy lifestyle for
all. Exercise leads to lower heart risks, controlling weight, avoiding obesity, and helping
children do better in school. Children often adopt healthy habits later in life when they
engage in family-driven activities and exercises. Parents should make time for playing, plan
active family activities, use bicycles or walk often, and engage in singing and dancing. Ha, et
al. (2019) introduced the Active 1+ FUN intervention as a family-based physical activity
model that an entire family can adopt (Ha et al., 2019). The model was based on the selfdetermination theory helping parents and children support their psychological needs for
autonomy, competence, and relatedness. Two hundred four primary schools children and
their parents participated in an experiment applying the model for six months and a follow-up
of 12 months. There was a notable increase in activity levels, reduced weight among
participants, better school performance, and overall happier families.
What are the advantages of screening?
Screening is important, especially health screening, in detecting specific diseases or
other health conditions early. People should consider screening even when they do not have
symptoms or disease signs (NHS, 2021). When conditions are detected early, the right
medication or treatment is given to enable the patient to control their health more effectively.
What are the disadvantages of screening?
The first demerit of screening includes the likelihood of having false-positive results,
which can be emotionally draining or lead to unnecessary invasive operations or medications.
Another disadvantage is the cost of screening which may not be covered by insurance
companies and can cause a dip to one”s pockets through the out-of-pocket payments. Some
screening may also lead to a life of worry since early detection of disease does not mean
better management, such as prostate cancer in men. Screening can be harmful through
exposure to radiation (Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care, 2019). Endoscopy
can also lead to bleeding and serious injuries.
Describe the Health Belief Model.
The Health Belied Model suggests that a person’s health-related behavior depends on
a combination of several factors: perceived benefits, perceived susceptibility, perceived
barriers, perceived severity, self-efficacy, and cues to action (Sheppard & Thomas, 2021).
The HBM is derived from the psychological and behavioral theory positing that people often
desire to avoid illness or setting well and the belief that certain health actions will cure or
prevent a given illness. In the case of the Covid-19 vaccination, I applied the HBM model.
The susceptibility was high to contracting the disease; I felt vulnerable. The severity was
high based on statistics. The perceived benefits of taking the vaccine were high. Barriers
were low since it was a free jab. The stimulus to action or cue to action was high since
everyone around me was willing to take the jab. My confidence in taking the jab increased
over time since initially, I had worries about side effects until I eventually took it.
Stages of the Transtheoretical Model
The Transtheoretical Model (TTM) states that people move through six stages of
change. The first stage is pre-contemplation, where they do not have the intention of taking
action. The second state of contemplation is when people consider healthy behavior in the
foreseeable future following awareness of the problematic nature of their current behavior.
The third stage is the preparations stage, where people are ready to take action within 30
days. The fourth stage is the action stage, where people change their problematic or
unhealthy behavior. The maintenance stage is where people sustain their behavior changes
(Liu et al., 2018). The Termination stage is when people have integrated the healthy behavior
and have no intentions of returning to the unhealthy behavior. I applied TTM to my
unhealthy eating behavior, where I have now integrate healthy diets and exercise to manage
my physical health.
Social Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive theory (SCT) explains how an individual’s health behaviors are
influenced by the actions of others, the environment, and individual experiences. SCT is a
model that offers people an opportunity to explore social support through observational
learning, self-efficacy, instilling of expectations, reinforcements, self-control, and assigning
value to expectancies (Schunk & DiBenedetto, 2020). I applied the SCT through my healing
when I was depressed after betray by my closest friend. I believed that I had self-efficacy and
would stop depending on others for my emotional health, how to leverage self-control, the
source for reinforcement, and manage my expectation of others.
13. Recommended types and amounts of physical activity for adults as by ACSM and
ACSM recommends that adults should engage in moderate-intensity aerobic physical
activity for five days weekly, with a minimum of 30 minutes per day. Adults between 18
and 65 years can also engage in vigorous-intensity aerobic activity three days a week for a
minimum of 20 minutes (ACSM, 2021). Exercise induces the increase of muscle insulin
activity, improving peripheral glucose disposal and insulin resistance hence good for
people with glucose intolerance. The process also augments the control of glycemic among
obese people, especially those with diabetes. Aerobics help lower blood pressure making
the heart stronger hence reduces cases of hypertension. Aerobics also help with cardiac
heart disease symptoms as they help improve the blood supply to the heart.
14. How can community leaders promote physical activity within their
Community leaders can advocate for creating or modifying the environments, making
them easier for the residents to walk oror cycle around (CDC, 2021). The community
leaders can also promote a sporting event within the neighborhood which will start the
culture of exercising, and this will increase physical activity making the communities better
places to live.
15. How stress affects the body psychologically.
Stress can affect the body by causing mental health problems such as anxiety,
depression, and personality disorders after releasing the hormone cortisol. Sturgeon et al.
(2017) studied the impact of financial stress on psychological health, where they found that
stress influenced psychological functioning. Gomes & Teixeira (2014) studied how stress
impacted psychological health, especially for health professionals. The study found that
stress is one of the factors that led to psychological health problems among healthcare
professionals. They came up with instruments that can help measure such stressed
16. Humor has health-promoting properties. Describe how humor promotes health
Humor hips in dealing with tough times, especially for people with stress and
depressed people. When people laugh out of humor, there is clinical evidence that there is
an enhancement of physical, psychological, and social well-being (U.S. Department of
Veterans Affairs, 2018). Humor can also help improve sleep and boost immunity.
17. Give an example of how alternative/complementary therapies are used in practice.
Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is often used in practice. An
example is the use of acupuncture in the treatment of pain control in cancer patients (John
Hopkins Medicine, 2021). Acupuncture is also used in relieving nausea and xerostomia,
anxiety, sleeping problems, depression, and fatigue.
18. Name an emerging infection and a prevention method.
The CDC rates ebola virus disease as an emerging infection (CDC, 2021). Prevention
of Ebola is through avoiding areas of the outbreak, washing hands frequently, avoiding
bush meat, and avoiding contact with infected people or their remains.
19. Three major categories of violence as per WHO
According to the WHO, there are three broad categories of violence: self-directed
violence, interpersonal violence, and collective violence (WHO, 2002). Self-directed
violence includes deliberate self-injury or self-abuse. Interpersonal violence includes
violence towards other people, such as a family member or intimate partner. Collective
violence is violence between different parties, such as economic violence between nations,
political violence aimed at advancing a particular agenda.
20. Three categories of bioterrorism
The first category of bioterrorism is Category A which includes high-priority agents
posing the highest risk to the public and national security, such as viral hemorrhagic fevers
such as Ebola. Category B includes an agent of second-highest priority such as food safety
threats such as Salmonella species (CDC, 2018). Category C includes emerging pathogens
such as the Nipah virus.
21. BONUS: Three essential health services of public health.
Supporting, mobilizing, and strengthening communities aiming at improving

Championing, creating, and implementing plans, policies, and laws that impact

Ensuring there is effective communication for educating the communities about
health, how to improve it, and factors influencing it.
22. BONUS: why bioterrorism is such a significant and current public health threat.
Bioterrorism remains a current health threat since its impacts on reducing the
population through deaths are far-reaching, with current threats such as the Covid-19
pandemic, which is one of the viruses that bioterrorists can use to cause harm to
communities (Congress, n.d.). There have been measures undertaken by the National
Preparedness for Bioterrorism and Other Public Health Emergencies under Title I through
the development and maintenance of medical countermeasures against the biological
agents. There has also been coordination and minimizing of duplication of federal, local,
and state planning, response, and preparedness activities. Lastly, there has been the
enhancement of hospitals and other facilities’ readiness to respond to such emergencies.
Surveillance and reporting mechanics have been improved, laboratory readiness improved,
trained and equipped personnel is available, and participation and communication networks
ACSM. (2021). Physical Activity Guidelines. American College of Sports Medicine. Retrieved
from https://www.acsm.org/read-research/trending-topics-resource-pages/physicalactivity-guidelines
Beaulieu, L., Addington, J., & Almeida, D. (2019). Behavior analysts’ training and practices
regarding cultural diversity: The case for culturally competent care. Behavior Analysis in
Practice, 12(3), 557-575.
CDC. (2018). Bioterrorism Agents/Diseases. Retrieved from
CDC. (2020). Four Simple Steps to Food Safety. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
Retrieved 14 October 2021, from https://www.cdc.gov/foodsafety/keep-food-safe.html.
CDC. (2021). Community Strategies. CDC. Retrieved from
CDC. (2021). Ebola Virus Disease. Retrieved from
Chu, J., Leino, A., Pflum, S., & Sue, S. (2016). A model for the theoretical basis of cultural
competency to guide psychotherapy. Professional Psychology: Research and
Practice, 47(1), 18.
Congress. (n.d). Public Health Security and Bioterrorism Preparedness and Response Act of
2002. Retrieved from https://www.congress.gov/bill/107th-congress/house-bill/3448
Edelman, C. L., Kudzma, E. C., & Rnc, D. M. (2021). Health promotion throughout the life
span-e-book. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Gomes, A. R., & Teixeira, P. M. (2016). Stress, cognitive appraisal and psychological health:
testing instruments for health professionals. Stress and Health, 32(2), 167-172.
Ha, A., Ng, J., Lonsdale, C., Lubans, D., & Ng, F. (2019). Promoting physical activity in
children through family-based intervention: protocol of the “Active 1 + FUN”
randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health, 19(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12889019-6537-3
Healthy People 2020. (2021). Global Health | Healthy People 2020. Healthypeople.gov.
Retrieved 14 October 2021, from https://www.healthypeople.gov/2020/topicsobjectives/topic/global-health.
Herforth, A., & Ahmed, S. (2015). The food environment, its effects on dietary consumption,
and potential for measurement within agriculture-nutrition interventions. Food
Security, 7(3), 505-520.
Institute for Quality and Efficiency in Health Care. (2019). Benefits and risks of screening tests.
Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK279418/
John Hopkins Medicine. (2021). Types of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Retrieved
from https://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/health/wellness-and-prevention/types-ofcomplementary-and-alternative-medicine
Liu, K. T., Kueh, Y. C., Arifin, W. N., Kim, Y., & Kuan, G. (2018). Application of
transtheoretical model on behavioral changes and amount of physical activity among
university students. Frontiers in psychology, 9, 2402.
NHS. (2021). NHS screening. NHS.uk. Retrieved 14 October 2021, from
Schunk, D. H., & DiBenedetto, M. K. (2020). Motivation and social cognitive
theory. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 60, 101832.
Sheppard, J., & Thomas, C. B. (2021). Community pharmacists and communication in the time
of COVID-19: Applying the health belief model. Research in Social and Administrative
Pharmacy, 17(1), 1984-1987.
Sturgeon, J. A., Arewasikporn, A., Okun, M. A., Davis, M. C., Ong, A. D., & Zautra, A. J.
(2016). The psychosocial context of financial stress: Implications for inflammation and
psychological health. Psychosomatic medicine, 78(2), 134.
U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs. (2018). The Healing Benefits of Humor. Retrieved from
WHO. (2002). World Report on Violence and Health. Retrieved from

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