Acute kidney disease edited 1

Acute kidney disease
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Acute kidney disease can affect people’s body capability to clean blood or manage
blood pressure. Also, it affects the production of red blood cells and vitamin D
metabolism required for bone health. The disease causes a build-up of unwanted
products in blood and interferes with the kidneys’ ability to keep the correct
balance of fluid in the body. This disease has numerous effects on the individual. It
affects the patient’s health by deteriorating his/her renal function. It does not only
affect their health but also depletes their resources during treatment. Treatment of
this disease is very expensive; thus, it requires more money to cater for the
services. In the case of cost, the family where the patient belongs feels the effect.
The family uses their wealth to cater to the patient’s treatment, and in most cases, it
leaves them poor. In the worst cases, the disease can kill the patient, taking away
one member of the family. The disease leaves individuals or families struggling
after the depletion of their wealth. For instance, if the family lost the person who
was the breadwinner, members of that family are left struggling with no one to
provide for their needs. Due to the increase of the disease among people (for
instance, the disorder is estimated to affect 37 million individuals in the US where
fifteen percent are adult population), more individuals are admitted to hospitals.
More finance is used to find interventions of eradicating and control the illness,
instead of that cash be put on developing the economy of a country. Therefore,
affecting the economy negatively.
Acute kidney disease is a condition that affects the functionality of kidneys and
makes them stop working properly. It presents as pathological troubled
discretionary and renal excretory function. The disorder is caused by a continuous
decrease in kidney functions that leads to terminal damage. At this period, there is
adaptation and variation in the still-working glomeruli that aid the kidneys to
function normally. Those glomeruli, thus, encounter an increase in pressure via
hyper-filtration. The discharge of various growth factors and cytokines results in
hyperplasia and hypertrophy. During this time, glomeruli function ability suffers
because of the extreme demands on them, resulting in upsurge proteinuria and
permeability. Amplified protein absorption in the proximal tube is straight
nephrotoxins, which can further weaken the function of the kidneys. The disorder
has four phases, namely, decrease in excretory function, the disruption of
electrolyte balance and over-hydration, reduction in renal discretion function, and
toxic organ impairment. These disorder-associated physiological changes are
altered tubular management of creatinine, lessened glomerular filtration rate,
decreased potassium secretion, and decreased sodium reabsorption, among others.
The disorder can develop quickly in less than a few days. It can be deadly and
needs intensive treatment, although it may be reversible. An individual with good
health might recover fully and have normal kidney function. An ethical issue
concerning this disorder is the appropriate withdrawal or initiation of dialysis. The
issue is inherent when a healthcare provider cares for a person with this disorder.
The conflicts about the decisions to withdraw or withhold dialysis frequently
involve vulnerable patients like elderly ones or those with intellectual impairment.
The clinical manifestations are reduced urine output, shortness of breath, nausea,
fatigue fluid retention leading to swelling of the patient’s ankles and legs. Also,
increased serum creatinine levels, increased potassium, metabolic acidosis,
seizures, among others. When an individual has signs and symptoms that suggest
he/she is suffering from this disorder, the doctor may recommend certain
procedures and tests to verify the patient’s diagnosis. These procedures and tests
may include urine tests where analyzing of patient’s urine samples might show
abnormalities, which suggest kidney disease. Urine output measurements test may
aid the doctor in determining the cause of the disorder. Another procedure is a
blood test, which may reveal increasing levels of creatinine and urea. Imaging tests
like computerized and ultrasound tomography can be used by doctors to see the
kidneys. Lastly, getting a sample of kidney tissue for a lab test. Some of the
abnormalities associated with this disorder are renal agenesis, renal hypoplasia,
many ureters, and dysplasia. In contrast, the normal finding is urine output.
Possible nursing diagnoses are a risk for imbalanced nutrition, and its rationale is
sufficient nutrition is necessary to improve tissue healing; therefore, adherence to
restrictions given by the healthcare provider might prevent complications.
Excessive fluid volume and its rationale is depending on the stage and cause of the
disorder, and the patient may require a restriction on intake of fluid. Lastly, the risk
for decreased cardiac output, patients with severe kidney disorder requires to
restrict activity. They may feel weak for a prolonged period during the long
recovery stage, needing measures to save energy and decrease boredom.
Treatment of this disorder normally needs a hospital stay and involves identifying
the disease that initially affected the kidney. The treatment options are influenced
by what is causing kidney failure. These options are treatments to balance the
amount of fluid in the blood. If the disorder is caused by a lack of fluid in the
blood, a healthcare provider might recommend intravenous fluids. When it leads to
increased fluid in a patient, resulting in swelling in the arms and legs, the use of
diuretics medication can help expel extra fluid from the body. Another option is
medication to manage blood potassium. A prescription of sodium polystyrene
sulfonate or glucose, calcium can be given to the patient to thwart the
accumulation of increased levels of potassium in the blood. High levels of
potassium in the blood can lead to muscle weakness and arrhythmias. Dialysis to
get rid of toxins from the blood. This treatment may aid in removing excess fluids
or potassium and toxins from the body while kidneys heal. In the time of dialysis, a
machine pumps blood out of the body via dialyzer, which cleans the blood. Lastly,
treatment to reinstate blood calcium levels. An infusion of calcium may be
recommended for patients with too low calcium in their blood. Some of the
complications related to this therapy include hypertension or hypotension, itching,
anemia, bone diseases, and sleep issues, among others. Some contraindications are
avoiding the use of statin and pain medicines or herbal supplements that may
contain potassium.
Registered nurses play a crucial role in the management and control of this disease.
They enable and help individuals to be aware of the condition. Also, they educate
people so that they can make informed decisions concerning long-term treatment
and showing them how that is important in eradicating the issue. They also advise
individuals on healthy eating and maintain good glycemia management to slow the
escalation of the disease. It is also their role to take care of the patients suffering
from this condition and encourage them to follow instructions given by the
physicians concerning their medication process.
Some of maladaptive results from management of the disease are upsurge mortality
risks in survivors of the disease and patients not recovering fully from this
problem. Besides, the increase of disease across the country and worldwide at large
despite the effort put to eradicate it. At the same time, adaptive outcomes are
patients recovering fully from the, the disease reducing and slowing its
progression on people. Furthermore, patients’ kidneys resuming to their normal
functionality is another adaptive result. To evaluate whether thtestseatma ent of
acute kidney disease has worked, healthcare providers use two different tests. One
of the test is urine test for albumin, a protein that can get to urine when kidneys are
impaired. Lastly a blood test that examines how well patients’ kidneys are working
after recovering from the problems. Both tests are used to check the functionality
of kidneys of a patient after receiving treatment of kidney disease.
Briefly, this disease is very dangerous and can have devastating effects on people.
All people should join their efforts to fight this issue through practicing healthy
eating. If the disease is not well managed, it can become progressive. Thus, it is up
to healthcare providers, together with other stakeholders to ensure everything is
done to manage and slow down the illness. Effective management and monitoring
depending on disease stage, appropriate timely referral to specialist services and
health education can be beneficial for people with acute kidney disease in terms of
enhancing long-term outcome. Measures should be taken to control and promote
good health to people by encouraging them to be screened regularly and know their
health status. Government should come up with interventions to eradicate or
reduce the rate of the disease in public.
Coca, S. G., Singanamala, S., & Parikh, C. R. (2012). Chronic kidney disease after acute kidney injury: a
systematic review and meta-analysis. Kidney International, 81(5), 442-448.
Doyle, J. F., & Forni, L. G. (2016). Acute kidney injury: short-term and long-term effects. Critical
Care, 20(1).
Gameiro, J., Fonseca, J. A., Outerelo, C., & Lopes, J. A. (2020). Acute Kidney Injury: From Diagnosis to
Prevention and Treatment Strategies. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(6), 1704.
hiacode. (2020, May 18). Part 3: Clinical Indicators for Acute Kidney Injury/Failure | AKI Series. HIAcode.
Schrezenmeier, E. V., Barasch, J., Budde, K., Westhoff, T., & Schmidt‐Ott, K. M. (2017). Biomarkers in
acute kidney injury–pathophysiological basis and clinical performance. Acta physiologica, 219(3), 556574.

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