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Running head: SOCIOLOGY LESSON 6 AND 7
Sociology Lesson 6 and 7
Student’s Name
Sociology Lesson 6 and 7
Lesson 6
1. Social groups have had a significant influence on my life. Examples of social groups
include schoolmates, friends, neighbours and sports mates. These groups influence how I
act, behave, reason, and even dress. It affects both my emotional and psychological
2. Social groups are critical in any society. They form the spaces and platforms of
interaction for people (Barkan, 2011). Examples of social groups include; peers,
colleagues, family, friends, religious groups, and relatives. For instance, if one associates
with a family, there are specific values and patterns of behaviour. They are likely to
experience love, the satisfaction of needs, and the development of character. Also, if one
belongs to a particular religious, social group, they are likely to build their faith and fulfil
several spiritual needs.
3. The three different kinds of social groups, as listed in chapter 6, are primary and
secondary groups, reference groups, and in groups and out groups (Barkan, 2011).
4. Groupthink refers to people who go along with the desires and views that might be
contrary to their beliefs or better judgement (Barkan, 2011).
5. a. The macro social value for leadership is to provide direction in various ways, either by
becoming an instrumental or expressive leader.
b. The macro social value for conformity involves restraining actions that may hurt or
violate social rules by instilling discipline and obedience (Barkan, 2011).
c. The macro social value for networking is geared towards creating interactions that will
yield specific outcomes.
6. Max Webber emphasized five characteristics of beurocracy. First, they have a specific
specialization which means that division of labour is given to people with specialized
skills. Secondly, he mentions hierarchy which provides a chain of command for the
execution of specific roles. Thirdly he says written rules and regulations as a handbook or
guide manual for the team (Barkan, 2011). Fourthly, Webber mentions impartiality and
impersonality, which involves zero tolerance to favouritism. Lastly, Webber notes record
keeping as a critical need for a beurocracy organization.
Lesson 7
Part 1
According to Robert Merton, the strain theory of deviance emphasizes the massive gap
between the poor resulting from cultural emphasis and economic differences that inhibits success
regardless of the legitimate means of working (Barkan, 2011). The poor people experience strain
in their engagements since they are shortchanged. The strain theory’s characteristics include;
conformity, innovation, ritualism, rebellion, and retreatism. Regardless of the efforts made by the
poor people, they continue to accept the economic outcome. Lastly, others may choose to
innovate or lose hope.
Travis Hirschi propagated the social control theory of deviance. He argued that there is
an existent of delinquency bonds as weak systems originate from the family institutions and
schools. These bonds include; commitment, attachment, belief, and involvement (Barkan,
2011). Extension refers to how much people feel closer to the other person. Commitment refers
to the value we attach to the activities we prioritize. Involvement refers to the amount of time
spent accomplishing an action, and belief is highly connected to societal norms.
Part 2
A structural-functional perspective is a form of social control where people use structures
in society to achieve stability. For stability to be completed, a state of the hierarchy must dictate
how things are run (Barkan, 2011). As a result, there is control of people and resources.
A conflict perspective is a form of social control because it assumes the society’s ideas
are ideas of the ruling class (Barkan, 2011). This means that wealthy people can rule and
dominate the poor and minority in communities. The rich can manipulate political, economic and
social resources for their benefit, hence controlling the masses.
A symbolic interaction perspective is a form of social control because it gauges society’s
behavioural and relational aspects based on norms. According to this perspective, deviance and
crime result from social interaction and attachment behaviour (Barkan, 2011). This means that
one person’s interaction changes with their relationship to people or things. As a result, one can
be easily manipulated.
Barkan, S. (2011). Sociology: Understanding and changing the social world. Boston, MA: Flat
World Knowledge, Incorporated.

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