Betty neuman mrnd
Betty Neuman was born in 1924 and grew up on a farm
Her rural background helped her develop a compassion
for people in need, which has been evident throughout
defining nursing problems and for understanding the
client in interaction with the environment.
The client as a system may be defined as a person,
family group, community, or social issues.
She completed her initial nursing education with
double honors at People Hospital School of Nursing.
1957 – She earned a baccalaureate degree in public
health and psychology with honors
1966 – master’s degree in mental health, Public health
consultation, from the University of California, Los
1985 – Neuman completed a doctoral degree in clinical
psychology at Pacific Western University.
The Nueman Systems Model is a unique, opensystemsbased perspective that provides a unifying focus for
approaching a wide range of concerns.
BASIC STRUCTURE – our human body
A SYSTEM acts as a boundary for single client, a group,
or even a number of groups; it can also be defined as a
Our body has different type of defenses: line of
resistance, flexible line of defense, and normal line of
defense which help and defend our body for it not to
A CLIENT SYSTEM in interaction with the environment
delineates the domain of nursing concerns.
For us not to suffer in diff. Illness or health related
illness we have different lie of defense.
THE GOAL OR IDEA OF SYSTEM MODEL
One responsibility of us nurses, would be to help
patients maintain these lines of defense. To maintain
these good line of defense is through the different level
of prevention. The primary, secondary, and tertiary
level so that we can achieve the constitution.
According to Nueman our body has basic structures
and it is always ideal to maintain a
homeostasis(balance) in the patient’s body. That is
always the goal for us to maintain the balance in our
body for us to maintain our optimal health status. For
short our body will always want to be healthy.
However, Nueman also said there are a lot of stressor
that would like to get inside our body, and these
stressors can cause diseases, illnesses, or destruction in
the basic structure of the body. These are just not the
stressor can also be the problem with the society,
mental health, etc.
The idea of the systems model is for us nurses help
patient maintain that homeostasis through the
different levels of prevention primary, secondary, and
The Nueman Systems Model is a dynamic, open,
systems approach to provide a unifying focus for
MAJOR CONCEPTS AND DEFINITIONS
WHOLISTIC APPROACH – clients are viewed as wholes
whose parts are in dynamic interaction.
➢ The model considers all variables simultaneously
affecting the client system (approach the patient
holistically not just the physical but also):
developmental, and spiritual.
➢ As stressors comes in different forms.
➢ It’s not just the physical stress, bacteria, viruses,
surrounding of the patient that can affect his or
her health but also the psychological, culture,
society and even the spiritual aspect of the
patient can affect their health.
➢ She changed the spelling holistic to Wholistic in
the second edition to enhance understanding of
the term as referring to the whole person.
sociocultural, developmental, and
interaction with the environment.
OPEN SYSTEM – a system is open when there is a
continuous flow of input and processes, output, and
BASIC STRUCTURE – the client as a system is composed
if a central core surrounded by concentric rings (line of
resistance, normal line of defense, flexible line of
➢ Stress and reaction to stress are basic
components of an open system.
➢ Our body itself, it is what we protect for us to
have stability in health.
INPUT AND OUTPUT – for the client as a system, input
and output are the matter, energy and information
that are exchange between the client and the
LINES OF RESISTANCE – these rings represents resource
factors that help the client defend against a stressor.
FEEDBACK – system output in the form of matter,
energy, and information serves as feedback for future
input for corrective eaction to change, enhance, or
stabilise the system.
➢ It’s your body’s way on how he or she can react
to the external stressors.
EXAMPLE: If a stressor gets into a person’s body a virus
or a bacteria(input) our body will react to this
NEGENTROPY – the process of energy conservation
that assists system in the progression toward (recover
or maintain) stability or wellness
STABILITY – is a dynamic and desirable state of balance
in which energy exchanges can take place without
disruption of the character if the system, which points
toward optimal health and integrity.
➢ It is always the goal of a patient to maintain a
ENVIRONMENT – internal and external forces
surrounding the client, influencing and being
influenced by the client, at any point in time.
CREATED ENVIRONMENT – is developed unconsciously
by the client to express system wholeness symbolically.
Its purpose is to provide protection for client system
functioning and to insulate the client from stressors.
➢ Lines of resistance serve as protection factors
that are activated by stressors penetrating the
normal line of defense.
NORMAL LINE OF DEFENSE – it represents the
adaptational level if heath developed over the course
if time and serves as the standard by which to measure
➢ It can be your immunity system that develops
FLEXIBLE LINE OF DEFENSE – it is perceived as serving
protective buffer for preventing stressors from
breaking through the usual wellness state as
represented by the normal line of defense.
HEALTH – us a continuum of wellness to illness that us
dynamic in nature. Optimal wellness exists when the
total system nerd are being completely met.
WELLNESS – exist when all system subparts interact in
harmony with the whole system and all system needs
are being met.
ILLNESS – exists at the opposite end if the continuum
from wellness and represents a state of instability and
Stressors – are tension-producing stimuli that have the
potential ti disrupt system stability, leading ti an out
ime that may be positive or negative.
STRESSORS MAY ARISE FROM THE FOLLOWING:
➢ These are the things or the ways a person does to
his or her surrounding to protect themselves
against diff. stressors. This is unique among
INTRAPERSONAL FORCES – person, ano ba ang stressful
para sa atin, ano ba ung stress at anxiety para sa atin.
CLIENT SYSTEM – the client system is a composite of
INTERPERSONAL FORCES – would be coming from the
environment that is closed to you. Home, work,
studies, family, hospital, and nurses.
➢ Because stress differs from one person to
EXTRAPERSONAL FORCES – these are also the
environment, however environment that is somewhat
far from you and not directly related to you. Social or
society, government, culture, background…
DEGREE OF REACTION – represents dysten instability
that occurs when stressors invade the normal line if
PREVENTION AS INTERVENTION – interventions are
purposeful actions to help the client retain, attain, or
maintain system stability.
➢ They can occur before or after protective lines of
defense and resistance are penetrated.
➢ Interventions are based on possible or actual
degree of reaction, resources, goals, and
NEUMAN IDENTIFIES THREE LEVEL OF INTERVENTION:
(What will be our responsibilities to help patients
achieve a stability, homeostasis and health)
PRIMARY PREVENTION – is used when a stressor is
suspected or identified. A reaction has not yet
occurred. The purpose is to reduce the possibility of
encounter with the stressor or to decrease the
possibility of a reaction.
➢ At this point the patient is not yet sick and
according to nursing, we nurse don’t only care
patient who are sick. One of our responsibility is
to prevent people from getting sick.
➢ Here are the ways to prevent people from
getting sick Vaccination, Health teaching,
seminars, trainings, and etc.
➢ identifying risk factor
SECONDARY PREVENTION – involves interventions or
treatment intiated after symptoms drin stress have
➢ Patient is now sick.
➢ The goal is to treat the symptoms and reason
for the illness and disease and to find early case
findings on how we can help the patient. So
that, the patient will not deteriorate, will not
die, and will recover from being sick.
➢ cooling measure medication
EXAMPLE: Medication, surgery, maintainance and
management of medication
TERTIARY PREVENTION – occurs after the active
treatment or secondary prevention stage.
➢ It focuses in readjustment toward optimal client
➢ The goal is to maintain optimal wellness by
preventing recurrence of reaction or regression.
➢ It is either the patient recovers or the patient
sustained a permanent disability of damage.
➢ If your patient recovers the goal of this stage is to
make adjustments so that your patient will
maintain optimal client system stability.
➢ For shirt prevent your patient from getting the
same illness again.
➢ family education
➢ Another goal is to maintain reconstitution.
EXAMPLE: Seminars, trainings, rehabilitation of the
patient, teach your patient to maintain good
RECONSTITUTION – occurs after treatment for
➢ It represents return of the system to stability,
which may be at a higher or lower level of
wellness than before stressor invasion.
METAPARADIGM OF SYSTEM MODEL
PERSON – Neuman presents the concept of person as
an open client system in reciprocal interaction with the
➢ The client may be an individual family, group,
community or social issue.
➢ The client system is a dynamic composite of
psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and
HEALTH – she views health as a continuum of wellness
to illness that is dynamic in nature and is constantly
➢ “Optimal wellness or stability indicates that total
system needs are being met. A reduced state of
wellness is the result of unment systemic needs.”
ENVIRONMENT – all internal and external factors that
surround an d influence the client system.
➢ Stressors are significant to the concept of
environment and are described as environmental
forces that interact with and potentially alter
NURSING – is concerned with the whole person. She
views nursing as a “unique profession in that it is
concerned with all of the variables affecting an
individual’s response to stress.