Brain injury

Neuron-genesis in the dent-ate gyros of the rat hippocampus continues throughout life,
according to recent research. According to research, alterations in the rate of progenitor
cell division lead to an increase in the production of adult granule neurons under
various physiological and pathological situations Neuron-genesis is triggered by
exciton toxic and mechanical damage to the granule cells, which suggests that
preexisting granule neuron mortality might be an important trigger for Neuron-genesis
Traumatic brain damage in rats has been linked to the death of hippocampus pyramidal
neurons and granule neurons. The thymine analogue, bro-mode oxyuridine, was used to
mark freshly split cells in rats in order to assess whether the proliferation of precursor
cells is increased after brain damage (BrdU). The rate of BrdU-labeled cells in the
dent-ate gyros rose after traumatic brain damage, reaching a peak at three days after the
The hippocampus is located in the brain. It is located in the temporal lobe, which is the
lower part of the brain’s temporal lobe. More than four centuries have passed since
humans first learned about the hippocampus. A lot of research has been done on this
area of the brain. Hippocampus is derived from the Greek terms hippo, which means
horse, and kampo, which means monster, referring to the creature’s monstrous
appearance. Learning and memory are two of its primary roles.(Sapolsky,2021).
Researchers’ understanding of memory has benefited by learning about the
hippocampus. (Owen,2021)
The limbic system, of which the hippocampus is a component, is responsible for our
ability to feel and respond. The hypothalamus and the amygdala are part of the limbic
system, which is located on the periphery of the cortex. The endocrine system and the
“fight or flight” response are two examples of the many body activities that are
influenced by these structures.(Phelps,2020). It is the occipital lobe of the brain that
processes visual input and synthesises it into a representation of the world as a person
perceives it. The retina sends information to the brain’s main visual cortex, often known
as Brodmann area 17 or V1. Objects in the visual field are interpreted and sent using
information about their position, movement, and colour using this method of
Declarative memories and spatial links are processed and retrieved by the
These are recollections of facts and occurrences, which are known as declarative
memories. Memorizing speeches and lines from a play are two examples. Memories of
a relationship’s location are linked to a network of paths or routes. Taking a taxi around
town, for example, requires the use of spatial memory.(Phelps,2020). The right
hippocampus seems to preserve spatial connection memories. Short-term memories are
also stored in the hippocampus, where they are converted into long-term ones. Other
parts of the brain then store these memories. Adults’ nerve cells have been
demonstrated to continue to grow and change. A fresh generation of nerve cells is
created in just a few of areas in the brain.
Memory loss and the inability to form new, long-term memories may occur if one or
both sections of the hippocampus are injured by Alzheimer’s disease or an accident.
They may have trouble recalling events that occurred just before the hippocampus
impairment, but they may be able to recall events that occurred much farther in the past.
Since long-term memories are kept in a different area of the brain, this is the case.
Memory loss known as transient global amnesia occurs unexpectedly and disappears
almost as rapidly as it appears on its own. The causes of transitory global amnesia
remain a mystery, however most patients recover their memories within a short period
of time. injury to the hippocampus may be a factor. Having trouble remembering how
to go from one location to another might be the result of injury to the hippocampus.
Maps of the neighbourhood they grew up in may be easy for the individual, but
travelling to the shop in a different location might be a challenge. Additionally,
schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder have been shown to be associated to it
An important portion of the brain is the hippocampus. It may be injuryd by a variety of
factors, including prolonged exposure to high amounts of stress. The hippocampus is
known to be affected by a number of illnesses and other conditions.
Alzheimer’s disease attacks the hippocampus, which is one of the first places to be
impacted. Short-term memory loss is a warning indication of Alzheimer’s disease. It’s
possible that they’ll have trouble following instructions. The hippocampus shrinks in
size as the illness develops, making it more difficult to carry out everyday tasks.
Approximately 50 to 75 percent of persons with epilepsy are found to have
hippocampal impairment, according to autopsies.Epilepsy, on the other hand, may not
be to blame for this harm.(Phelps,2020).
The hippocampus shrinks in the brains of those suffering from severe depression.It is
not clear if the tiny size is a consequence of depression or a contributing cause,
according to scientists. Stress has been shown to negatively affect the hippocampus.It’s
unclear what will happen when the hippocampus is underdeveloped
It seems that Alzheimer’s disease, sadness, and stress are all related to the size of the
hippocampus being less than normal.The size of the hippocampus in Alzheimer’s
patients may be used to gauge the disease’s progression.The hippocampus may shrink
by up to 20% in patients with depression.
Some researchers believe this to be a reliable source.According to reviews of research,
the hippocampus may be 10% smaller in patients with severe depression than in those
without depression.Cortisol, a stress hormone, is connected to a variety of Cushing’s
syndrome symptoms, including fatigue, weight gain, and depression. These signs
include a decrease in hippocampal size. Hippocampus size is 54% heritable in
monkeys, according to a research.(Sapolsky,2021). It is, however, possible that the
hippocampus continues to create neurons into adulthood, obscuring the relationship.
It’s also not clear whether or not having a tiny hippocampus is a cause or effect of
certain may slow the progression of cognitive decline and ageing, according
to a study published in2021.result in old age may improve this structure’s capacity to
produce new nerve cells, according to the findings. Memory might be preserved and
perhaps improved by this. However, it’s not apparent how this occurs. Moreover, the
result is influenced by a wide range of factors. To be sure, further study is required.
(Owen,2021)Low-frequency activity in the hippocampus may be responsible for
promoting functional connectivity in other brain regions, according to a study
published in Hong Kong in 2021. This means that activity in the hippocampus may
influence not just memory and navigation, but also sensory processes like as vision,
sound, and touch. Hippocampus may be compared to the “heart of the brain” in this
A brain injury results in the death or degradation of brain cells, which is known as brain
injury. According to the Brain injury Association of America, around 2.6 million
individuals in the United States suffer from some sort of brain injury each year. A
traumatic brain injury takes the lives of 52,000 people each year, and over 5 million
people in the United States need some type of support with their everyday tasks as a
consequence. According to the National Stroke Association, around 130,000 people in
the United States die each year from a stroke.
Head traumas are the most common cause of traumatic brain injury (TBI). There’s no
guarantee that a head injury will cause brain injury. Traumatic brain injury and
non-traumatic brain injury are the two main forms of brain injury. Both have an impact
on the regular functioning of the brain. TBI occurs when an external force, such as a
blow to the head, causes the brain to move within the skull or destroys the skull. This, in
turn, harms the human brain.Cellular injury happens as a result of an ABI. It’s most
often linked to a feeling of pressure in the head. Tumors are one possible source of this.
An example of this is a stroke, which is a kind of neurological disorder that may cause
it.(Owen,2021) After birth, both acute and acquired brain injuries may develop.
Furthermore, none of these traits is a sign of deterioration. The two names are
sometimes used synonymously. This kind of brain injury is caused by heredity or birth
trauma, and it may be treated. Congenital brain injury is the medical term for it. The
traditional definition of brain injury or traumatic brain injury does not include it,
The injury induced by a gunshot entering the brain is an example of focused (or
localised) brain injury. To put it another way, the harm is localized. Diffuse brain injury,
or injury to several parts of the brain, is common in closed-head traumas. As an
example, the nerves in the brain have been stretched beyond their limit. In medical
jargon, this is referred to as DAI, or diffuse axonal injury.
Medical treatment is required for everyone who suffers a head or brain injury.
Even a concussion, which is a slight injury to the brain, may be as harmful as more
obvious injury.(Owen,2021) The size and location of the injury is the most important
consideration. Long-term disability or impairment is not always the outcome of a brain
injury. However, harm may only be contained or minimized with the right diagnosis
and treatment.
TBI is a major problem in public health, affecting tens of millions of individuals
throughout the world. Because so few people are aware of it or know how to detect
whether they have it, it’s been dubbed the “silent epidemic”. many cases are recorded in
the United States each year..(Langlois et al2021). TBI has harmed the lives of around
5.3 million individuals, many of whom are still living with long-term disability. The
yearly expenses, including direct and indirect, were calculated to be in excess of $56
billion (Binder et al2021).
Neurological, neuron imaging, and neuron psychological evaluations are used to
establish the amount and impact of brain injury. Stabilizing the patient, ensuring that
blood and oxygen are getting to the brain, and controlling blood pressure are all
measures taken by doctors to avoid additional harm.One of the four primary lobes of
the mammalian brain is the occipital lobe.(Owen,2021) Visual information about one’s
immediate environment, such as an object’s colour or shape, is processed mostly by the
occipital lobe. Other areas of the brain receive this information, which is subsequently
processed to provide meaning to the visual data. The occipital lobe may malfunction,
resulting in a variety of physiological dysfunctions, including visual irregularity,
trouble standing, and even blindness. The occipital lobe may also play a role in
disorders like epilepsy..

Anand, K. S., & Dhikav, V. (2021, October-November). Hippocampus in health
& disease: An overview. Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 15(4), 239–

Chan, R. W., Leong, A. T. L., Ho, L. C., Gao, P. P., Wong, E. C., Dong, C. M.,
…Wu, E. X. (2021, August 15). Low-frequency hippocampal-ocrtical activity
drives brain-wide resting-state functional MRI connectivity [Abstract]. PNAS,
114(33), E6972-81

Duboc, B. (n.a.). Short term-memory

Yassa, M. A. (n.d.). Hippocampus. Encyclopedia Britannica

New functions of hippocampus unveiled. (2021, September 29)

O’Keefe, J. (2021, June 3). Overview: Space, memory, and the hippocampus

Owen, D., Paranandi, B., Sivakumar, R., & Seevaratnam, M. (2007). Classical
diseases revisited: transient global amnesia. BMJ, 83(978):236-239

Phelps, J. R. (2019, December). Memory, learning, and emotion: the

Sapolsky, R. M. (2021, October 23). Depression, antidepressants, and the
shrinking hippocampus. PNAS, 98(22): 12320–12322

Shrinkage, not the shrinks. (2018)

Swenson, R. S. (2016). Review of clinical and functional neuroscience

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