Handout 5 io management

One of the main functions of the operating system is to control all the computers I/O devices. It
must issue commands to the devices, catch interrupts and handle errors. It should also provide an
interface between the devices and the rest of the system that is simple and easy to use. I/O
component represents a significant fraction of the total operating system.
4.1 I/O Hardware
I/O devices can be roughly divided into two categories: block devices and character devices.
Block devices store information in fixed-size blocks, each with its own address. The essential
property of block devices is that it is possible to read or write each block independently of all
other. Disks are the most common block devices. A disk is a block addressable device because no
matter where the arm currently is, it is always possible to seek for another cylinder and then wait
for the required block to rotate under the head.
The other type of I/O device is the character device. A character device delivers or accepts
streams of characters, without regard to any block structure. It is not addressable and does not
have any seek operation. Printers, Mice, keyboards and other devices that are not disk-like can be
seen as character devices.
This classification is not perfect, as some devices do not fit in either. Clocks, for example, are not
block addressable, neither do they generate or accept character streams. There are other
classifications that have also been used, for example, those that can be accessed sequentially or
randomly, those that transfer data synchronously or asynchronously. Dedicated or shared.
Operating systems need to handle all devices despite these variations. One key goal of an
operating system’s I/O subsystem is to provide the simplest interface possible to the rest of the
A device communicates with a computer system by sending signals over a cable or even through
the air. The device communicates with computer via a connection point termed as a port. If one
or more devices use a common set of wires, the connection is called a bus.
4.1.2 Device Controllers
I/O units typically consist of a mechanical component and an electronic component. The
electronic component is called the device controller or adapter. A device controller is a
collection of electronics that can operate a port, a bus or a device. On PCs, it often takes the form
of a printed circuit card that can be inserted into a slot on the computer’s parent board. The
mechanical component is the device itself. The controller card usually has a connector on it, into
which a cable leading to the device itself can be plugged. Many controllers can handle a several
identical devices. The interface between the controller and the device is standard interface.
The operating system deals with the controller and not the device. To encapsulate the details and
oddities of different devices, the operating system is structured to use device driver modules.
The device drivers present a uniform device access interface to the I/O subsystem, much as
system calls provide a standard interface between the application and the operating system.
Each controller has a few registers that are used for communicating with the CPU. On some
computers these registers are part of the regular memory address space. This scheme is called
memory-mapped I/O.
In addition to I/O ports, many controllers use interrupts to tell the CPU when they are ready for
their registers to be read or written. An interrupt is an electrical event. Hardware Interrupt
ReQuest line (IRQ) is a physical input to the interrupt controller. Some controllers are hardwired
onto the system parent board, for example the keyboard controller.
The operating system performs I/O by writing commands onto the controller’s registers. The
floppy disk controller, for example, accepts 15 different commands, such as READ, WRITE,
SEEK, FORMAT, etc. When a command has been accepted, the CPU can leave the controller
alone and do other work. When the command has been executed, the controller causes an
interrupt in order to allow the operating system gain control of the CPU and test the results of the
operation. The CPU gets the results and device status by reading from the controller’s registers.
4.1.3 Polling
Communication between the host and controller can take the simple protocol of handshaking. We
assume that 2 bits are used to co-ordinate the controller and the host. The controller indicates its
state through the busy bit and status register. The controller sets the busy bit when it is busy
working. And clears it when it is ready to accept the next command. The host sets the commandready bit when a command is available for the controller to execute. For example, the host writes
output through a port, coordinating with the controller by handshaking as follows:
Host repeatedly reads the busy bit until it becomes clear.
Host sets the write bit and writes a byte to the data out register
Host sets the command ready register
When the controller notices that the command ready bit is set, it sets the busy bit
Controller reads the command register and sees the write command. It reads the data out
register to get the byte and does the I/O to the device
6. Controller clears the command ready bit and bust bit to indicate that it is finished.
This loop is repeated for each byte. In step 1, the host is busy-waiting or polling.
4.1.4 Direct Memory Access
Many controllers, especially those for block devices, support Direct Memory Access (DMA).
When DMA is not used, the following happens. First the controller reads the block from the drive
serially, bit by bit, until the entire block is in the controller’s internal buffer. Next, it computes the
checksum bit to verify that no read errors have occurred. Then the controller causes an interrupt.
The operating system can read the disk block from the controller’s buffer byte by byte or a word
at a time by executing a loop, with each iteration reading one byte or word from the controller’s
device register and storing it in memory.
DMA was invented to the CPU from the low level work of continuously looping to read bytes of
data. The CPU gives the controller two items of information, in addition to the disk address of the
block: the memory address where the block is to go and the number of bytes to store. After the
controller has read the entire block from the device into its buffer and verified the checksum, it
copies the first byte or word into the main memory at the address specified by the DMA memory
address. Then it increments the DMA address and decrements the DMA count by the number of
bytes just transferred. This process is repeated until the DMA count becomes zero at which time
the controller causes an interrupt.
4.2 I/O Software
The basic idea of I/O software is to organize it as a series of layers, with the lower layers
concerned with the hiding of peculiarities of the hardware from the upper ones and the upper ones
concerned with presenting a clean, nice and regular interface to the users.
A key concept in I/O software design is device independence. This means that it should be
possible to write programs that can read files on a floppy disk, hard disk or a CD-ROM without
having to modify the programs for each different device type. It is up to the operating system to
take care of the problems caused by the differences in media types, which may need different
device drivers.
Closely related to device independence is the goal of uniform naming. The name of a file or
device should simply be a string of characters or an integer not dependent on the device in any
way. For example in UNIX, all disks are integrated in the file system hierarchy in ways that are
transparent to the user. For instance, a floppy disk can be mounted on top of the directory
/usr/ast/backup/ so that copying a file /usr/ast/backup/file1 copies the file to the floppy disk. In
this way all the files and devices are addressed in the same way: by path name.
Another important issue in I/O software is error handling. Errors should be handled as close to the
hardware as possible. If the controller discovers a read error, it should try to correct the error if it
can. If it can’t then the device driver should handle it, perhaps by trying to read the block again.
Most errors are transient and if the operation is repeated they go way. Upper layers only handle
errors that cannot be addressed by lower layers.
Another key issue is synchronous (blocking) versus asynchronous (interrupt driven) transfers.
Most physical I/O is asynchronous – CPU starts the transfer and goes to do something else until
the interrupt arrives. User programs are much easier to write if the I/O operations are blocking –
after a READ operation the program is suspended until the data is available in the buffer. It is up
to the operating system to make operations that are interrupt driven look blocking to the user
Another concept is sharable versus dedicated devices. Some I/O devices such as disks and
printers can be used by many users at the same time. There is no problem with multiple users
having open files on the same disk at the same time. Other devices like tape drives have to be
dedicated to a single user. The operating system should be able to handle shared and dedicated
These issues ca be achieved in an efficient way by structuring I/O software in four layers:
Interrupt Handlers
Device Drivers
Device-independent Operating System Software
User-level Software
4.2.1 Interrupt Handlers
Interrupts should be hidden from users by the operating system. The best way to hide them is to
have every process starting an I/O operation block until the I/O has completed and the interrupt
occurs. The process can block itself by doing a DOWN on a semaphore, WAIT on a condition
variable or a RECEIVE on a message, for example.
When the interrupt happens, the interrupt procedure does whatever it has to do in order to
unblock the process that started it. It might do an UP on a semaphore or a SIGNAL on a condition
variable. The process that was blocked will now be able to run.
4.2.2 Device Drivers
All the device-dependent code goes in the device drivers. Each device driver handles one device
type or at most one class of related devices. For example, it would be good to have a single
terminal driver, even if the system supported several different brands of terminals, all slightly
different. We have seen that device controllers have registers used to give it commands. Device
drivers issue these commands and check that they are carried out properly. Thus the disk driver is
the only part of the operating system that knows how many registers that disk controller has and
what they are used for.
The work of a device driver is to accept requests from the device-independent software above it
and ensure that the request is executed. A typical request is to read block n. If the driver is idle at
the point of the request, it carries it out immediately. If not, it queues it in its queue of pending
requests to be dealt with as soon as possible. The first step in carrying out the request for a disk,
for instance, is to translate it from abstract to concrete terms. This means the device driver has to
locate the block on disk, check if the drive motor is running, and determine if the arm is
positioned on the proper cylinder and so on. That is, it must determine what controller operations
are required and in what sequence.
The device driver then issues the commands. In most cases, it blocks until an interrupt comes to
unblock it. In other cases it doesn’t have to block. Once the operation has been completed, it
checks for errors. If everything is okay, it might have some data to pass to the device-independent
software. If there are more requests, it processes them; otherwise, it blocks waiting fro the next
4.2.3 Device Independent I/O Software
The boundary between drivers and device independent software is system dependent, because
some functions that could be done in a device-independent way may be done in the drivers for
efficiency or other reasons. The following functions are normally done in device-independent
Uniform interfacing for device drivers
Device naming and protection
Providing a device-independent block size
Storage allocation on block devices
Allocating and releasing dedicated drivers
Error reporting
The basic function of the device-independent software is to perform the I/O functions that are
common to all devices and provide a uniform interface to the user-level software. A major issue
in operating system is how files and I/O devices are named. The device-independent software
takes care of mapping symbolic device names to the proper drivers. Closely related to naming is
protection. How does the system prevent users from accessing files and devices they are not
entitled to access? In UNIX, this is done through the use of rwx bits.
Different disks may have different sector sizes. It is up to the device-independent software to hide
this fact and provide a uniform block size to upper layers, for example treating several sectors as
a single logical block. Also some devices deliver their data one byte at a time (modems), while
others deliver theirs as a block (NIC). These differences must be hidden. Buffering is also an
issue for both character and block devices.
When a file is created and filled with data, the new disk blocks have to be allocated to the file. To
perform this, the operating system needs a list or bit map of free blocks per disk, but the
allocation algorithm is device independent and can be done above the level of the driver. Some
devices can only be used by one process at a time. It is up to the operating system to examine
requests and for device usage and accept or reject them depending on whether the device is
available or not. The device driver does error handling. The driver reports the error to the system
dependent software then how it is treated from there on is device independent.
4.2.4 User Space I/O Software
Although most of the I/O software is within the operating system, a small portion of it consists of
libraries linked together with user programs and other programs running outside the kernel.
System calls, including the I/O system calls are normally made by library procedures.
Not all user-level I/O software consists of library procedures. Another important category is the
spooling system. Spooling is a way of dealing with dedicated I/O devices in a multiprogramming
system Consider a typical spooled device: a printer. What is normally done is to create a special
process called a daemon, and a special directory called a spooling directory. To print a file, a
process normally generates the entire file to be printed and puts it in the spooling directory. It is
up to the daemon which is the only process having permission to use the printer’s special
directory to print the files in the directory. Spooling is also used in the network by a network
daemon. To send a file somewhere, a user puts it in a network spooling directory. Later on, the
network daemon takes it out and transmits it.
The figure below summarizes the I/O system, showing all the layers and the principal functions of
each layer. Staring at the bottom, the layers are: hardware, interrupt handlers, device drivers,
device independent software and finally the user processes.
I/O software layers

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