Human anatomy physiology and medical terminology diploma

Human anatomy: physiology and medical terminology
Module1: Human body vocabulary with picture
Date: 28/6/2021

Medical English has its own language
The skull is a bony structure the forms the head in vertebrae
The cranium and facial bone form the skull
The cranium encloses and protects the fragile tissue and is composed of eight large flat
Frontal bone forms the forehead
Parietal bone paired parietal form most superior and lateral walls of the cranium
Temporal: lies inferior to the parietal bones
Occipital bone joins the parietal bone anteriorly a the lambdoid sulture
Sphenoid bone: the butterfly shaped spans the width of the skull and forms part of the
floor of the cranial cavity
Ethmoid bone: very irregular shaped and lies anterior to the sphenoid
Maxillae, palatine bone, zygomatic bones, lacrmial bones, nasal bones. Vomer bone,
inferior nasal conchae, mandible are the facial bones of the skulls
Accessory structure of the eye include eyelid, eye lashes, conjunctiva, lacrimal
apparatus, lacrimal glands, lacrimal canaliculi, lysozyme, extrinsic eye muscle
Fibrous layer: the outmost later and protect scleta and cornea
Sclera: glistening
Cornea: center anterior portion of the fibrous layer
Vascular layer: has 3 regions:
1. Choroid: most posterior, blood rich nutritive tunic that contain a dark pigment
2. Ciliary body: 2 smooth muscle structure
3. Iris: a thin, annular structure, responsible for controlling the diameter and size of
Pupil: rounded opening of pigment in iris
Retina: a thin later of tissue that lines the back of the eye on the inside
Lens: a transparent, bioconvex structure; along with the cornea and helps to refract light
to be focuses on the retina

Ear has three part outer, middle, and internal
Outer ear has 3 parts:
1. Pinna: the shell shape structure surrounding the auditory canal opening
2. External acoustic meatus: a short, narrow chamber
3. Tympanic membrane: sound waves entering the auditory canal eventually hit the
tympanic membrane or eardrum
Middle ear has 3 parts
1. Opening: the tympanic cavity is flanked laterally by eardrum and medially by bony
2. Pharyngotympanic tube: runs obliquely downwards to link middle ear cavity with
the throat
3. Ossicles: consist of malleus, incus, and stapes
Inner ear: located deep in the temporal bone behind the eye socket and has three parts
cochlea, vestibule, semicircular canals
The vertebral column extends from the skull which it supports to the pelvis to help the
lower limbs
Forms of 26 irregular bones
Spine is composed of spinal cord, vertebrae which has 5 types such as cervical, thoracic,
lumbar, sacrum, coccyx, and intervertebral discs (the individual vertebrae are separated
pads of flexible fibrocartilage-intervertebral discs).
Centrum: disc-like, weight-bearing parts of the vertebra facing anteriorly in the vertebral
Vertebral arch: arch formed from the joining of all posterior extensions
Vertebral foreman: canal through which the spinal cord passes
Transverse process: two lateral projections from the vertebral arch
Spinous process: single projection arising from the posterior aspect of the vertebral arch
Superior and inferior articular process: paired projection lateral to the vertebral
The thoracic aka bony thorax and has 3 parts: sternum, ribs, and thoracic vertebrae
The sternum is a typical flat bone and result of the fusion of three born manubrium,
body, xiphoid process
12 parts of ribs form for the bony thorax
1. True ribs: first seven and attached directly to the sternum
2. False ribs: next five, either attach indirectly to the sternum or not attached
3. Floating ribs: last 2 pairs of ribs lacks sternal attachment
Pectoral girdle aka shoulder girdle and consist of clavicle and scapula
Clavicle: aka collarbone, attached to the manubrium medially and scapula laterally
Each scapula have flattened body and 2 important process

1. Acromion is the enlarged end of the spine of the scapula and connect to the clavicle
laterally at the acromioclavicular joint
2. Coracoid: the beaklike coracoid process points over the top of the shoulder and
anchors some of the muses of the arm.
The upper limb consists of the arm, forearm (radius and ulna), hand
The bones of hand metacarpal, phalanges, carpal bones

The pelvic girdle aka hip bones and has 3 parts
1. Ilium: connects posteriorly with the sacrum at the sacroiliac joint
2. Ischium: forms most inferior part of the coxal bone
3. Pubis: most anterior part of the coxal bone

Lower limb consists of thigh, leg (tibia, fibula), foot
Bones of foot are tarsus, metacarpal, phalanges

Module 2: Equipment, instrument and lab test
Date: 29/6/2021

Doctors generally carry: name tag, ID card, white coat (Dress code), surgical mask, pager
Doctors bag usually has: stethoscope, reflex hammer, turning fork, tape measure,
neurological pin, ruler, calipers, lamp, flashlight, clipboard, otoscope scapula (to look
into the ears), ophthalmoscope (test health of an eye), sphygmomanometer (measure
blood pressure), manometer (measure pressure acting on column of fluid), hand bulb
(applies pressure to the limbs or extremity), head mirror, notebook, pen, marker
Working materials and other equipment on the ward: syringe, vacutainer, tube, needle,
gauge, rubber glove, face mask, disinfectant, betadine, swab, lubricant, disposable cloth,
chlorhexidine, cannula, indwelling catheter, central line, oxygen mask, tongue blade,
spinal needle, band-aid, chart, IV bottle, pill, adapter, heparin lock flush, ampulla,
normal saline, nebulizer, refrigerator, graded cylinder, crash cart, walker, pneumatic
tube system, water fountain
Module 3: Acronyms and Abbreviation
Date: 29/6/2021

Acronyms is a word composed of the first letters of the words in a phase, especially
when this is used as a name

Abbreviation: is shortened form of a written word
Module 4: Digestive System
Date: 2/7/2021

Stomatitis is an inflammation of the mouth
Orthodontists: a dentist who is specialized in correcting and preventing irregularities of
abnormally positioned or aligned teeth
Duodenoscopy: is a visual examination of the duodenum
Hematemesis means vomiting of blood
Computed tomography (CT) scan) is imaging techniques achieved by rotating an x-ray
emitter around the area to be scanned and measuring the intensity of transmitted rays
from different angles
Module 5: Cardiovascular System
Date: 2/7/2021

Angioplasty is an endovascular procedure that reopens narrowed blood vessels and
restores blood flow
Arterioles is an inflammation of the wall of an arteriole
Electrocardiograph is a device used to record chance in the electrical activity produced
by the action of the heat
Venostasis is abnormally slow flow of blood in the veins, usually with distension of the
vessel; also called phlebostasis
Echocardiography is a noninvasive diagnostic method that uses ultrasound to visualize
internal cardiac structure and produce images of the heart

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