Introduction of bacteria and fungi

Page 1


Introduction of Bacteria and Fungi
BS Zoology Evening
Submitted to
Mushtaq Hussain Zahid
Submitted from


Introduction of bacteria
Bacteria is a unicellular,free-living prokaryotic organism which belong to kingdom Monera.

Page 2

History of bacteria: In(1674) The Dutch scientist Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek discovered first
bacteria by using a single- lens microscope of his own design.Bacteria’s fossil has been found in
Devonian period about 3.5 million years ago.

 Morphology of bacteria:

Size of bacteria:
Bacteria is very small microorganism which cannot seen by naked eye. we use microscope to
observe bacteria . Its size range from 0.1 to 600 micrometer over a single dimension.
Shape of bacteria: Bacteria varied in their shapes . They have different types on the basis of shape.

They are oval or spherical shaped bacteria . They may be diplococcus, streptococcus, tetrad and

They are rod shaped bacteria. They may b diplobacillus and streptobacillus.

Page 3



They are coil and curved shaped bacteria. They include vibrio, spirochetes and spirillum.


Page 4


Cell wall

◆ Pili
◆ Capsule
◆ Nucleoid
◆ Ctyoplasm
◆ Mesosomes.
◆ Ribosomes
◆ Spore
◆ Plasmid

Page 5

Types of Bacteria on basis of cell wall

Gram positive bacteria

Gram negative bacteria

• Nutrition of bacteria:•

Bacteria are heterotrophs Some are autotrophs which include photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria. Hetero-trophic bacteria may be saprophytic or parasitic .

Growth and Reproduction of bacteria:Bacteria can reproduce by binary fission. Bacteria growth divided into 4 phases:
1. lag phase
2. log phase
3. stationary phase
4. Death phase

Growth curve:

Importance of bacteria
Bacteria is very important in medical and food industries. It is used in the production of
antibiotics and vaccine. It is also used in production of drugs.
• Disorder of bacteria:
Bacteria cause many diseases in organism such as anthrax and rabies.
It also effect f agricultural industries.
Control of bacteria: It can be controlled by physical and chemical methods.

Page 6

Introduction Of FUNGI
Fungi is a multicellular Eukaryotic absorptive heterotroph.It include in
separate kingdom Fungi.
History of Fungi:
The ancestory of fungi which evolved about (570 )million years ago. The fungi which
discovered was pencillium. The fossil of fungi has been found in south China from
around (635) million years ago.

Characteristics of Fungi:1.

Fungi is absorptive heterotroph s.
Cell wall of fungi is made of chitin
Fungi show characteristic type of nuclear mitosis.
Fungi lack centriole
Fungi is non- motile

Body of fungus
The body of fungus is called mycelium. It consist of long slender branched like
filament called Hyphae .Hyphae may b septate and non- septate hyphae.
Septate hyphae: They are divided by cross walls into individual cells having one
or more nuclei.
Non- Septate hyphae: They are not divided by cross wall present in form of
elongated muti nucleated cells.

Page 7

• Nutrition In Fungi:Fungi is absorptive heterotroph s. They also act as decomposer and contribute
in the recycling of minerals such as Carbon, Nitrogen , Hydrogen and
phosphorus. They may be saprophytic fungi , parasitic fungi and Mutualistic
Saprophytic Fungi: They depend on dead organic debris.
Parasitic Fungi: They depend on host body.
Mutualistic fungi: They get benefit host body and in return also give benefit
to host’ s body.



Asexual reproduction: Asexual reproduction can be done by following method
1. Spore formation
2. Conidia formation
3. Fragmentation
4. By budding
sexual reproduction: In sexual reproduction two phases fellows.
• Classification on basis of reproductive method
• There are four Types of fungi

Page 8

Importance Of fungi:

Some fungi are used in medicine such as penicillin
Some fungi are used in food industries such as Mushrooms
Some Fungi are used in research purpose such as yeast
losses due to Fungi:
Fungi causes many diseases such as lung disease in human
Some fungi are plant pathogenic and disturb agricultural industries such as smut and rust
Some fungi are poisonous and harmful for organism

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat