Introduction of bacteria and fungi

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ASSIGNMENT

Introduction of Bacteria and Fungi
Department
BS Zoology Evening
Submitted to
Mushtaq Hussain Zahid
Submitted from
Kairasher

GOVT GRADUATE COLLEGE CHOWK AZAM

Introduction of bacteria
Bacteria is a unicellular,free-living prokaryotic organism which belong to kingdom Monera.

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History of bacteria: In(1674) The Dutch scientist Antoine Van Leeuwenhoek discovered first
bacteria by using a single- lens microscope of his own design.Bacteria’s fossil has been found in
Devonian period about 3.5 million years ago.

 Morphology of bacteria:

Size of bacteria:
Bacteria is very small microorganism which cannot seen by naked eye. we use microscope to
observe bacteria . Its size range from 0.1 to 600 micrometer over a single dimension.
Shape of bacteria: Bacteria varied in their shapes . They have different types on the basis of shape.

Cocci
They are oval or spherical shaped bacteria . They may be diplococcus, streptococcus, tetrad and
sarcina.

BACILLIA:
They are rod shaped bacteria. They may b diplobacillus and streptobacillus.

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Diagram:

Spirilli:

They are coil and curved shaped bacteria. They include vibrio, spirochetes and spirillum.

Diagram:

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STRUCTURE OF BACTERIA:◆ Flagella

Cell wall

◆ Pili
◆ Capsule
◆ Nucleoid
◆ Ctyoplasm
◆ Mesosomes.
◆ Ribosomes
◆ Spore
◆ Plasmid

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Types of Bacteria on basis of cell wall

Gram positive bacteria

Gram negative bacteria

• Nutrition of bacteria:•

Bacteria are heterotrophs Some are autotrophs which include photosynthetic and chemosynthetic bacteria. Hetero-trophic bacteria may be saprophytic or parasitic .

Growth and Reproduction of bacteria:Bacteria can reproduce by binary fission. Bacteria growth divided into 4 phases:
1. lag phase
2. log phase
3. stationary phase
4. Death phase

Growth curve:

Importance of bacteria
Bacteria is very important in medical and food industries. It is used in the production of
antibiotics and vaccine. It is also used in production of drugs.
• Disorder of bacteria:
Bacteria cause many diseases in organism such as anthrax and rabies.
It also effect f agricultural industries.
Control of bacteria: It can be controlled by physical and chemical methods.

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Introduction Of FUNGI
Fungi:
Fungi is a multicellular Eukaryotic absorptive heterotroph.It include in
separate kingdom Fungi.
History of Fungi:
The ancestory of fungi which evolved about (570 )million years ago. The fungi which
discovered was pencillium. The fossil of fungi has been found in south China from
around (635) million years ago.

Characteristics of Fungi:1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Fungi is absorptive heterotroph s.
Cell wall of fungi is made of chitin
Fungi show characteristic type of nuclear mitosis.
Fungi lack centriole
Fungi is non- motile

Body of fungus
The body of fungus is called mycelium. It consist of long slender branched like
filament called Hyphae .Hyphae may b septate and non- septate hyphae.
Septate hyphae: They are divided by cross walls into individual cells having one
or more nuclei.
Non- Septate hyphae: They are not divided by cross wall present in form of
elongated muti nucleated cells.

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• Nutrition In Fungi:Fungi is absorptive heterotroph s. They also act as decomposer and contribute
in the recycling of minerals such as Carbon, Nitrogen , Hydrogen and
phosphorus. They may be saprophytic fungi , parasitic fungi and Mutualistic
Fungi.
Saprophytic Fungi: They depend on dead organic debris.
Parasitic Fungi: They depend on host body.
Mutualistic fungi: They get benefit host body and in return also give benefit
to host’ s body.



1.
2.

Reproduction

Asexual reproduction: Asexual reproduction can be done by following method
1. Spore formation
2. Conidia formation
3. Fragmentation
4. By budding
sexual reproduction: In sexual reproduction two phases fellows.
plasmogamy
karyogamy
• Classification on basis of reproductive method
• There are four Types of fungi

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Importance Of fungi:






Some fungi are used in medicine such as penicillin
Some fungi are used in food industries such as Mushrooms
Some Fungi are used in research purpose such as yeast
losses due to Fungi:
Fungi causes many diseases such as lung disease in human
Some fungi are plant pathogenic and disturb agricultural industries such as smut and rust
Some fungi are poisonous and harmful for organism

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