Network planning and maintenance edited 1

Network Planning and Maintenance
Department; University
Course Code; Course Name
Network Planning and Maintenance
Accordingly, the generation characterized by wireless connections like the fourth
generation, 4G, and cellular networks aims to leverage several operations like voice, information,
and multimedia more than the network packages. Essentially, around these systems, individual to
individual passing of information can be improved considering high standard quality pictures and
video; additionally, through the approach to data and services in public and private systems that
will be advanced through maximum data frequencies, quality of service (QoS), safety measures,
location visibility, adequate energy and other resilient abilities in communication. Essentially,
the platform will provide new offers for business transactions for both the manufacturers and the
operators of products and services through the application of these systems (Alzaydi,et al.,
The provision of QoS certifies various applications that are crucial to the goals in
structuring the coming wireless connection generation. Notably, quite a number of the
applications present divergent QoS needs concerning the data frequencies, delay bounds and
delay bound violation possibilities, among other requirements. For example, it can be noted that
in power plant management applications, reliability with demand and convenient redemption of
control commands, thus becoming essential to declare that no single packet is missed or delayed
in the transfer process. The nature of QoS preference is typically referred to as deterministic or
rigid warrantees. On the contrary, most multimedia presentations such as video telephony,
streaming in multimedia, and internet gaming do not need a rigorous QoS. Simply, it happens
due to these applications’ ability to bear particular possibility amounts of QoS violation.
Accordingly, the QoS monitoring may follow the network packages by inspecting data
packets or oversight from its platform to the system. Quality of Service is structured with routers
and switches that prefer congestion in which more could be allowed to pass. Exceptionally high
productivity of the network congestion will be realized. QoS means well for the VoIP phones or
LANs characterized by more local congestion
TCP/IP has the advantage of snooping. The end-to-end TCP concept is maintained. Most
of the improvements are attended in the alien ambassador itself, which maintains contributor host
remaining with no change. With this, it is noted that surrendering of the position is not needed as
soon as the locomotive host travels to the other alien ambassador. The traffic management
utilizes the slow beginning algorithm to control the system traffic by gradually involving the
packages in the connection immediately after the socket is activated. The gradual beginning
process is activated originally for every TCP socket by inaction. The disadvantage of the OSI is
that it is purely a conceptual model that fails to incorporate the presence of suitable technology.
In a way, it bars its pragmatic execution line. The launching timeline with this model was
regarded as improper. In the event OSI appeared, the TCP/IP protocols had existed in
implementation by this time. The theoretical aspect enables it to have difficulty defining any
specific protocol (Miajee et al., 2018).
Accordingly, the OSI layer model is presented with seven layers, differentiating it from
the TCP/IP model, which is presented with four layers. It can be noted that the OSI layer model
has been left redundant with utility while, at the same time, the TCP/IP is still operating and
adopted in the computer system. By definition, the performances of the upper layers of the OSI
model apply three distinct layers that include application, presentation, and Session. On the other
hand, the TCP/IP model utilizes only one application layer. Additionally, with the upper layers,
the OSI model utilizes the two different layers, such as physical and data-link, to refer to the
operations of the bottom layers contrary to TCP/IP, applying the only layer known as the link
layer for the similar action. The reference to the conventional protocols and basics, the OSI
model applies the network layer, but the TCP/IP model adopts the internet layer. Relatively, in
presentation, the OSI is grounded with evidence more than the TCP/IP model. Accordingly, the
OSI model emphasizes all the standards and protocols, whereas the TCP/IP model offers a
conclusion as an abstract interpretation with similarity. The distinction found between the initial
TCP/IP model and the refurbished TCP/IP model explains that today’s TCP/IP model is closely
distinct from the initial TCP/IP model (Turay & B, 2018). The initial TCP/IP model
demonstrates four layers, whereas the refurbished TCP/IP model presents five layers. Indeed, the
initial form utilizes only one layer, the link layer, to explain the actions and constituents
accountable for transferring information. The refurbished form operates with the two layers of
data-link and physical. The reference adopts the functions that proportionately connect to the
information being transferred in the physical layer. The functions are not proportionately
connected to the information transferred in the data-link layer. Essentially, in the refurbished
form, the term of the internet layer is altered to the network layer.
In the OSI Model, a layer is singly provided in cases of definite levels of summary
requirement. The operation of every layer needs a collection of internationally structured
protocols. The number of layers required to be huge to differentiate the operations that need not
occur in the same layer. Accordingly, the size should be small to accommodate the architectural
standards with no complexity. For the OSI model, every layer depends on the preceding bottom
layer to act on the traditional operations. It continues with every level, offering services to other
ranked preceding layers. Notably, any alterations performed in one layer require no alterations in
other layers.
On the other hand, the characteristics of TCP/IP leverages architectural flexibility while
adding other techniques to the connection with simplicity. The TCP/IP networks are connected
until the root and target equipment become properly operational. Notably, TCP is a network with
a grounded protocol that provides reliability and ensures that information in the series
arrangement needs to be back in order. Further, the TCP authorizes the implementation channel
control, which is why the sender fails to overcome a receiver with data (BECHENEA et al., n.a).
BECHENEA, E. D., CROITORU, P. D. E. V., & Vasile, E. TCP/IP Microchip stack–a solution
for an IoT arhitecture.
Miajee, M. R. K. (2018). Network layer: TCP/IP Model. American International Journal of
Sciences and Engineering Research, 1(1), 16-17.
Turay, B. (2019). Analysis of Seven Layered Architecture of Osi Model. Journal For Innovative
Development in Pharmaceutical and Technical Science (JIDPTS) Volume, 2, 73-77.
Alzaydi, Z. M., Al-Hajla, A., Nguyen, B., & Jayawardhena, C. (2018). A review of service
quality and service delivery: Towards a customer co-production and customer-integration
approach. Business Process Management Journal.

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