New testament final
Running head: NEW TESTAMENT
SECTION 1: INTRODUCTORY MATERIAL
Lecture 5: New Testament Background
Chapter 2 Study Questions
1. What is the significance of the following events or books for the NT?
a. The Assyrian exile of Israel (the northern kingdom) – Loss of Jewish sovereignty.’
b. The Babylonian exile of Judah (the southern kingdom) –Jewish came to live close to
gentiles after their loss of their central sanctuary and dissolvent of their monarchy.
c. The book of Malachi – It aimed to deliver stern rebukes and call the people and their priests
to repent and promise future blessings.
d. The conquests of Alexander the Great- The collapse of the Persian Empire was the second
great crisis for the Jewish nation because their Greek kings considered their culture more
“superior” and used it in all the lands they occupied.
2. Which two Greek houses were in charge of Palestine from 320– 167 BC?
Selucides and Ptolemies
3. What was the name of the Greek ruler who erected a statue of Zeus in the
Jerusalem temple, and when did this event take place?
Antiochus IV, 168 BC.
4. What was the name of the Jewish party supportive of the Maccabees?
5. What was the name of the dynasty following the Maccabees?
The Hasmonean Maccabean dynasty
6. Which two parties divided from the Hasidim?
The Pharisees and the Essenes, who withdrew and produced the Dead Sea Scrolls.
7. What are the years of rule for the following Roman emperors?
a.Augustus 31/27 BC-AD 14
b.Tiberius AD 14-37
c.Nero AD 54-68
d.Domitian AD 81-96
8. When did the Romans destroy the Jerusalem temple? 70 AD
9. Who were Herod the Great’s three sons who ruled over parts of Palestine, and which
were the provinces or regions they ruled?
Philip was Herod’s great son, who ruled from Galilee, the regions of Auranitis, Batanaea,
Trachonitis, and Gaulanitis.
10. What are the names of at least five apocryphal books, five pseudepigraphical books,
and three writings of the Qumran literature (Dead Sea Scrolls)?
Apocryphal books are 1 and 2 Esdras (2 Esdras = 4 Ezra), Tobit, Judith, Additions to Esther,
Wisdom of Solomon, and Sirach (Ecclesiasticus)
Pseudepigraphical books are 1 and 2 Enoch, 2 and 3 Baruch (2 Baruch = Apocalypse of Baruch),
Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, Sibylline Oracles, and Assumption of Moses
The writings of the Qumran literature (Dead Sea Scrolls) are CD (Damascus or Zadokite
document), 1QS (Community Rule or Manual of Discipline), and 1QM (War Scroll).
Lecture 6: Judaism
Chapter 2 Study Questions
11. What were the four major Jewish sects active in first-century Judaism?
Pharisees, Sadducees, Essenes, Zealots
12. What was the name of the Jewish ruling council?
SECTION 2: THE GOSPELS
Lecture 7: Gospel Criticism
Chapter 3 Study Questions
1. Name the work from which this quote is taken: “On the eve of Passover, they hanged
Jesus the Nazarene.”
2. From where is this quote taken? “Therefore, to squelch the rumor, Nero created
scapegoats and subjected to the most refined tortures those whom the common people
3. From where is this quote taken, and what is the unique name assigned to it? “At this
time, there was a wise man who was called Jesus. And his conduct was good, and he
was known to be virtuous.”
Testamonium Flavianum, Caribic version, Josepus.
4. What are three contemporary portrayals of Jesus that prefer extrabiblical sources over
the canonical Gospels?
Traveling Cynic Philosopher, Faith Healer, Apocalyptic Prophet, Social Reformer, Feminist.
5. According to the authors, what are the dates for Jesus’s birth and death, and what,
according to the authors, is a critical datum for dating Jesus’s death?
Birth 6-5 BC,
Death 33 ad
The critical date for death is the month of Nisan, 14th day was a Thursday that year. Which is
the preparation day, allowing Jesus to die on Friday and rise on Sunday
6. What is a critical datum for dating Jesus’s birth?
7. What is a simple definition of the “Criterion of Multiple Attestation”?
Two independent sources.
8. What is a simple definition of the “Criterion of Dissimilarity”?
Dissimilar sayings that are unexpected from Jewish culture.
9. Where do critical scholars assign the burden of proof regarding the authenticity of
Jesus’ material in the Gospels?
To the person who doubts it.
10. What are the two significant possibilities regarding the relationship among the
Markean priority or Mathew and Lukean Priority.
11. In what order were the Gospels written, according to the Augustinian hypothesis?
Mathew, mark, luke, john
12. In what order were the Gospels written, according to the two-Gospel hypothesis?
Mathew, Luke, then Mark, then john.
13. In what order were the Gospels written, according to the Markan priority view?
Mark, Mathew, Luke, John
14. What is the two-document hypothesis?
Mathew and Luke used Mark and the hypothetical document Q as their source.
15. What is Q?
A possible source for Mathew and Luke from the German Quelle.
16. List the steps for the interpretation of a Gospel periscope.
1. How the periscope relates to the gospel’s purposes.
2. Examine themes
3. Look for repeated themes, titles, phrases,
4. Examine commentary by the author
5. Note the response of the witnesses.
6. Look for a connection between the narrative and immediate context.
7. Examine OT quotes and allusions.
8. Consider events in light of OT and Jewish theology.
17. List the steps for the interpretation of a parable.
1. Main characters of the parable
2. Objects are given particular importance
3. Examine the structure of the parable
4. Details the seam shocking, extraordinary, unnatural, or unrealistic,
5. Examine the connection to introductions or conclusions to the parable
6. Connection to other parables in the same grouping.
7. Apply Steps for gospel interpretation previously discussed.
Lecture 8: The Gospel of Mathew
Chapter 4 Study Questions
1. Who does the earliest extant external evidence suggest wrote Matthew’s Gospel?
From a statement from Papias, bishop of Hierapolis, in his expositions of the lord’s sayings.
Iranaeus claimed that papas were a disciple of john. Papias wrote Matthew arranged in the order
the saying in the Hebrew dialect.
2. Did Matthew write his Gospel in the Hebrew language? Explain your answer.
Papers, bishop of Hierapolis, said Mathew did write it in order in Hebrew. Also, hints of heroic
influence appear in the gospel. a) gematria, name of David in the number 14, the meaning of the
name Jesus, in Hebrew, Yahweh saves, with the definition, stated in 1:21, he will save his people
from their sins.
3. When did Matthew most likely write his Gospel? Why is an early date significant?
50-60ad, an early date is significant because gives credibility that Matthew’s words would not be
changed over oral tradition over time.
4. What are the two most likely locations where Matthew’s Gospel may have been
Palestine or Antioch, Syria
5. To what geographical area did Matthew write? What demonstrates this?
Palestine, Hebrew language. If Antioch, because the book contains both jew and gentile
elements.Also, Antioch has a large population of Jews and gentiles. The last Matthew also
quoted by Ignatius, who was from Antioch.
6. What are the primary and secondary purposes of Matthew’s Gospel?
The primary focus was Jesus’s identity as the Messiah.
A secondary purpose is the gospel was written to serve as a manual for discipleship.
7. What is the most prominent feature of Matthew’s structure?
Structure is chronological
8. Which phrase used by the evangelist enables the interpreter to identify the overall
structure of Matthew’s Gospel?
a) From that time on
b) and when Jesus finished
9. What are two instances in which Matthew used numerical symbolism to make his
The number 14 when calling out the generations is repeated. The number 14 in Jewish letters
spells out the name for David. Jesus is the son of David.
10. What are the chapters in Matthew that correspond to the Sermon on the Mount and
the final eschatological discourse?
Sermon on the Mount in chapters 5-7.
Eschatological discourse in chapters 24-25
11. Which feature is particularly prominent in Matthew 1– 4?
Jesus is the fulfillment of the Messiah predicted in the Hebrew Scriptures. 1-4 uses many
fulfillment of OT quotations.
Lecture 9: The Gospel of Mark
Chapter 5 Study Questions
1. Who does ancient tradition suggest wrote Mark’s Gospel? Who was believed to be his
John Mark, who received the gospel from Peter.
2. Why do some posit a late date for Mark?
Mark 13, many beliefs instead of predicting the destruction of Jerusalem, believe it describes the
event in the past tense as already happened, therefore, meaning a later date than 70 ads.
3. What linguistic evidence points to a Roman destination?
Latinisms: Roman coins used, the words, Legion, flogged, Praetorium. All Roman type terms to
a Roman audience.
4. What is the major Christological title in Mark?
Son of God
5. How does the structure of Mark fit with his purpose?
The structure is built around living his miracles which prove that Jesus is the son of God.
6. What reasons support the theory that Mark’s Gospel was penned in the second half of
Mark was written before Luke if you believe in a Markean priority. We know that Acts was
written 62 ads and Luke before that, so mark must come before that. Also, Peter believed to be in
Rome during that time. Peter had to still be living to report the events. His death probably 66 to
68 under Nero.
7. According to this chapter, what are the four interrelated purposes of Mark’s Gospel?
1. Pastoral purpose
2 missionary training
3. Apologetic purpose
45. Anti-imperial purpose. Jesus is the son of God, not the past emperors.
8. What is the textual issue in Mark 1: 1?
A few early manuscripts omit the phrase, son of God.
9. According to the authors, what are at least two reasons the longer endings of Mark
should not be considered original?
1. No in many early manuscripts.
2. Drinking poison and handling snakes is spurious
10. Why is Mark’s Gospel called “action rich”?
The gospel is compactness, concreteness, vividness, and orderliness. Frequent use of the word
immediately, the narrative is fast-paced.
11. How many major parts are in the structure of Mark’s Gospel, and which verse is the
2 major parts. The first part is proving Jesus is the messiah. The second part proves Jesus is the
suffering servant. The text takes a turning point in 8:27 when Peter confesses that Jesus is the
Christ, the son of the living God.
Lecture 10: The Gospel of Luke
Chapter 6 Study Questions
1. Concerning the authorship of Luke, on what points are most scholars agreed?
1. Refined use of Greek language that points to an author was well educated. 2 The author is
male 3. Access to a variety source of Jesus 4. He was not an eye-witnessed of Jesus. 5. He had
the opportunity to investigate the story of Jesus fully.
2. Why does the internal and external evidence support Lukan authorship?
1. The so-called we passage in Acts, and through deduction prove that Luke was the writer.
2. Paul listed six companions when he was in prison, and one was Luke and seems was the best
3. Early manuscripts call Luke in the title.
4. Early church fathers listed Luke as the author.
5. The Muratorian canon listed Luke as the author.
6. Papias and clement named Luke as an author very early.
7. False teacher Macian in 150 AD edited Luke’s writing in his corrupted version of doctrine as
3. What does the “medical” terminology of Luke suggest?
Luke, in Colossians, is called a physician, so he would naturally use medical terminology.
4. To whom is Luke-Acts dedicated? What is the recipient’s likely identity? Explain.
The Theophilus held the Roman office because Luke called him most honorable as he called
other Roman officials.
5. Why is it necessary to discuss the date of Acts in order to assess the date of Luke’s
Because the Book of Luke proceeded the Book of Acts, which continued the story. Therefore
Luke must be written first
6. Where was the most likely place for Luke to gather information for his Gospel?
Rome during Paul’s imprisonment
7. What is the significance of Jesus’s genealogy in Luke?
Genealogy back to Adam to include whole human race instead of just Jewish race
8. How does Luke’s use of parables differ from that of the other Synoptics?
Great reversal meaning those of low status in this world is exalted
9. According to the authors, which two individuals or groups are the major eyewitness
sources for Luke’s account?
Peter and woman who followed Jesus from Galilee
10. What is the most natural way, according to the authors, to understand Luke’s
purpose in writing?
Defending the truthfulness of Christianity
11. What is Luke’s “Travel Narrative,” and why do the authors suggest that it “breaks new
Chapter 9-19 include much new material recorded during Jesus teaching on the way to Jerusalem
12. What are the phases of Jesus’s trial?
1. Trial before Annas
2. Trial before Caiaphas
3. Trial before Pilate
4. Trial before Herod
5. Send back to pilate
Lecture 11: The Gospel of John
Chapter 7 Study Questions
1. Who is “the disciple Jesus loved”?
2. What three conclusive reasons do the authors provide for believing that John wrote
the Gospel bearing his name?
1) John is an apostle and eyewitness
2) He is one of the twelve.
3) He is john, the son of Zebedee (by far the strongest candidate on the basis of the aboveadduced evidence – not named at the Lord’s Supper, one of 7 disciples mentioned in Act 21:2-7).
John is the most plausible.
3. What are the two major divisions that comprise the structure of John’s Gospel?
The book of signs chapters 1-12.
The book of exaltation chapter 13 to 20:31
4. How do these two divisions fulfill the purpose statement of 20: 30– 31?
The signs were given that those who read it may believe.
The exultation section ensures the continuation of the message that he is the Son of God by
preparing his new messianic community for mission.
5. What is one major theological theme in John’s Gospel that points to a late date of
The theme is Jesus is Lord and God. John freely speaks to this, unlike the Synoptics, and even
Thomas says “my Lord and My God” after seeing Jesus. This phrase usually used for the
Emperor under Domitian in AD81 goes against the emperor to show the true God, Jesus.
Therefore, a late date is speculated, 80 to 90 ad.
6. Who was probably John’s general audience?
It is reasonable to assume that Ephesus, as Iranaeus says, but generally to the Diaspora Jews,
proselytes, and other Gentiles in mind without intending to limit his audience exclusively to any
7. How does John 1: 1– 18 serve as a road map for the entire Gospel?
This passage asserts Jesus is God, which is the theme throughout. The signs show he is God, and
the exultation prepares his people to continue the news.
8. What is the major purpose of the signs included in the first half of John’s Gospel?
The book of signs establishes by way of seven selected signs that Jesus is the Messiah sent from
1. Water into wine
2. Clearing the temple
3. Healing official’s son
4. Healing lame man
5. Feeding of multitude
6. Healing of a blind man
7. Raising Lazarus
9. What were the two major catalysts for the production of John’s Gospel?
The destruction of the Temple. This was the main device through which the Jews worshipped
after its destruction john taught that Jesus is now the main temple to worship. He replaced the
Also, he fulfilled the symbolism of the Jewish festivals. These were harder to do with Jerusalem
destroyed, and the people dispersed.
1. Passover – Lamb of God
2. Unleavened bread – the bread of life
3. Firstfruits – resurrection
10. What is the major purpose of the “I am” statements?
Jesus is the messiah.
1. I am the bread of life
2. I am the light of the world – the feast of tabernacles, lamps of the feast
3. I am the door
4. I am the good shepherd – shepherd-king like David
5. I am the resurrection and the life.
6. I am the way the truth and the life.
7. I am the true vine. – Jesus is the new Israel.
11. Why do some reject the originality of John 21? How do the authors defend it?
Because it seems it would end with the resurrection in 20.
1 However, most likely, the epilogue serves as the closing bookend that corresponds to the
opening bookend of the prologue.
2 resolves the relationship between peter and john as noncompetition.
3 resolves the identity of the author.
4 language and style are similar to the first 20 chapters.
5 no textual evidence that the gospel circulated without it.
12. What are the implications of Jesus the sent Son of God?
The Jewish concept of the Salah, according to which the sent one is like the sender himself,
faithfully pursuing the sender’s interests. Yet he not only a messenger but the One and only son
from the father who has come to give a full account of His Father.
SECTION 3 HISTORICAL MATERIAL
Lecture 12: The Book of Acts
Chapter 8 Study Questions
1. Who wrote Acts? Was the author an apostle? If not, what ensures that the criterion
of apostolicity was met?
Luke, No, he was not an apostle. However, apostolicity is maintained because of Luke’s close
association with the apostle Paul.
2. When were Acts most likely written, and what is the major reason usually given for
Acts were most likely written in the early ’60s. The major reason for this is Luke abruptly ended
Acts with Paul in prison in Rome. This imprisonment was his first imprisonment. Tradition tells
us that Paul was killed in Rome by Nero in 65 or 66 AD after Nero blamed the Christians on the
fire in Rome, which happened in 64AD. Therefore, acts had to be written a few years before
65/66, Luke before that. However, if Luke was written using information from Mark, known as a
Markean Priority, then Luke had to be written after Mark, which was written in the 50’s.
3. Who was Theophilus; how do we know, and what was his likely role with regard to
Theophilus may have been a Roman official because Luke calls him “most honorable” as he also
doe with officials such as Felix and Festus. Also, he was most likely Luke’s literary patron, in
which case he would have paid the price of publication, the housing of Luke, and the book’s
4. Where the book of Acts was most likely completed?
Rome. Most of the early church fathers agree that Luke was with Paul when Paul was
imprisoned in Rome. Since the book of Acts abruptly stops during this imprisonment, it seems
Luke was there at this time while writing.
5. What are the major proposals regarding the purpose of Acts? According to the authors,
what is the most likely purpose?
The major proposals for the purpose of Acts are as follows:
2. An apology or defense of the Christian faith
3. Paul’s legal defense,
4. Theological concerns,
5. The historical basis of the establishment and growth of the kingdom of God,
6. Evangelism and edification.
Authors say the purpose is to write an accurate historical narrative designed to edify his Christian
readers and to help them evangelize unbelievers.
5. Why is the question regarding genre important for studying Acts?
Genre helps one to identify the expectations one should have when approaching the book
(historical, fare tale, novel, etc.)
6. Why is the book of Acts considered historically reliable?
It is considered historically reliable because of the following:
a) Verifiable matters have been well attested, such as geography, proper names for places and
b) Accurate in terms of specific people, such as rulers, Augustus, Paphos, Gallio.
c) Correctly elements of ancient culture such as names of gods, ancient navigation terms, Roman
d) Narrated events recorded elsewhere in ancient histories, such as famine during Claudius, death
of Herod Agrippa, Edict of Claudius, replacement of Felix by Festus. p402
7. What are the sources that lay behind the composition of Acts?
The sources for Luke’s information to writing Acts are as follows:
a) Luke himself identified in the “we” passages mentioned in Acts
b) Luke’s personal acquaintance with Paul,
c) some written sources, Jerusalem council letter,
d) interviewing eyewitness testimonies, possibly with Peter,
e) Personal investigation asking others through his extensive travels who could supply him with
information regarding events in which he was not personally involved.
8. What is the basic “blueprint” for Acts, and why?
The blueprint of Acts is given in Acts 1:8, “but you will receive power when the Holy Spirit has
come on you, and you will be my witnesses in Jerusalem, Judea, and Samaria, and the end of the
earth. This was fulfilled as follows:
1. Jerusalem and Judea 1:1-6:7
2. Samaria 6:8-9:31
3. End of the earth 9:4-28:31
9. What is the logic underlying Peter’s Pentecost sermon?
Peter’s logic was
1. Holy Spirit was now poured out
2. This was predicted to happen after Jesus was exalted to the right hand of God
3. Therefore, the coming of the Spirit proves that Jesus has been exalted.
4. He quotes Joel that everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved
5. Therefore repent.
6. 3000 were converted.
7. This sets the stage for the rest of the book of the Spirit being poured out on those who call on
10. What major issue was discussed at the Jerusalem Council?
The major issue discussed at the Jerusalem council was whether Gentiles had to become Jewish
proselytes before they could become Christians.
11. What role does the Holy Spirit play in the book of Acts?
The role of the Holy Spirit in Acts is as follows:
a) Acts continues all that Jesus began to do and teach, as mentioned in the beginner of Luke, is
now accomplished through the Holy Spirit.
b) The Holy Spirit sovereignly directed the Christian mission, such as Phillip, Peter, Paul, and
Barnabas, Paul to Macedonia.
c) The Holy Spirit empowered the mission, such as, “peter filled with the Holy Spirit, began to
SECTION 4: PAULINE WRITINGS
Lecture 13: The Book of Acts
Chapter 9 Study Question
1. How many letters of Paul are included in the NT?
• Paul wrote thirteen letters compromising nearly ¼th of the NT.
• Approximately 16 chapters of Acts focus on his life.
2. How are the Quests for the Historical Jesus and the idea that Paul created
• Some scholars argue that Paul is the real creator of Christianity and did not see the life of Jesus
and his teachings as significant.
• They argued that Paul did not make any explicit references to Jesus’s teachings.
• However, this could be because Paul referenced the teachings of Jesus in his missionary work
and was answering more detailed questions in his letters.
• There are numerous references, parallels, and allusions by Paul to the sayings of Jesus.
• Conclusion: Paul should be recognized as a faithful follower of Jesus Christ rather than as a
founder of a form of Christianity that deviated from Jesus’s teachings.
• Paul’s teachings originated from his reflection on the life and teachings of Jesus, his study of
the OT, and his contemplation on the significance of his Damascus road experience.
3. What kind of evidence did Wenham advance to support his claim that Paul was a
follower of Jesus?
• He concluded that there are massive pieces of evidence of Pauline’s knowledge of Jesus’
• It is clear from his letters that Paul had extensive knowledge of the life of Jesus.
• He has shown that the continuity between Jesus and Paul is significantly greater than the recent
NT scholarship has shown.
4. What is the main passage advanced by Bultmann to prove that Paul was not
interested in details about Jesus’s life?
• 2 Corinthians 5:16 – From now on, then, we do not know anyone in a purely human way. Even
if we have known Christ in a purely human way, yet now we no longer know him like that.”
• Bultmann interpreted the verse to say that Paul was not interested in the life of Jesus but only
with the death and resurrection of Jesus.
5. Who sparked the “New Perspective” on Paul, and what is the title of his major
• E.P. Sander’s published Paul and Palestinian Judaism in 1977
• He called it covenantal nomism, the view that one’s place in God’s plan is established on the
basis of the covenant and that the covenant requires as the proper response of man his obedience
to its commandments while providing means of atonement for transgression.
6. What has the “New Perspective” correctly emphasized, and how should it be
• The new perspective correctly emphasized the Jewish context of early Christianity and the need
to study the NT documents against the background of Second Temple Jewish literature.
• It rightly warns of presumptive and misleading caricatures of Judaism that are ungrounded in
careful study of the primary documents. It is likely that not all Jews depended on legalistic
works-righteousness for salvation, though many did.
• Paul’s letters clearly show that the “works of the law” on which some Jews depended on their
salvation included efforts to keep all the prescriptions of the law and not just those that
distinguished the Jews from Gentiles.
7. Which legal status enabled Paul to appeal to the Roman emperor?
8. Where was Paul born and raised?
• Paul was born in Tarsus of Cilicia. Legend says his family had moved there from Gischala of
9. Who was Paul’s teacher?
• Paul’s teacher was Gamaliel. He is among the 13 great rabbis whose deaths marked the decline
10. What does the name Paul mean?
• It was common in the Roman world and meant small in Latin.
11. When Paul was converted, what central tenet in his belief system had to change?
• The fact that the Messiah would die a cursed death. It was inconceivable. Yet by his first letter,
he recognized His death under the curse as the grounds for our substitutionary atonement.
12. What was the focus of Paul’s gospel?
• All humanity had rejected God and his rightful authority.
• It was focused on Jesus Christ.
• It was a free gift granted to believers and grounded solely I God’s grace.
• All believers are united in Christ and therefore united in each other.
13. What difficulties are faced by someone who seeks to construct a chronology of Paul?
• The differences in the chronologies proposed by scholars are largely the result of the different
approaches to the issue and the different presuppositions that guide the research.
• Some scholars rely heavily on acts and Pauline letters.
• Others prefer the letters overacts and vice versa.
• The most sensible approach relies primarily on his letters for the chronology of his life and
supplements that chronology with data from acts. This allows for some of the events in Acts to
be arranged topically, just like the Gospels.
• There is also historical data to be thrown in.
14. Why should the writing of Galatians be placed before the Jerusalem Council?
• Because some of the events in Galatians 2:1-10 appear unlike the events of the Jerusalem
council. Peter’s convictions had changed by the time of the Council, so Paul would not have
needed to admonish Peter for something the council had already decided.
Lecture 14: Romans
Chapter 13 Study Questions
1. Why is Paul’s authorship of Romans so certain?
• The question was closed because the internal evidence for Paul’s authorship, particularly the
language, style, and theology of the book, was so compelling.
• It was also accepted as Paul’s letter by the early church fathers.
2. Why are Paul’s travel plans so important in dating the book of Romans?
• Because they coalesce with the details in Acts 20.
• It was likely written in AD 54-55 from Corinth.
• His plans indicate that he was about to or had just begun his journey to Jerusalem.
3. What considerations point to a likely Corinthian provenance for Romans?
• Several early manuscripts indicate it was written in Corinth.
• Paul stayed in Corinth during most of the period when the letter was likely written
• Three people who were with Paul during the writing of the letter were from Corinth:
i. The Gaius mentioned is likely from Corinth
ii. Paul sent greetings from Erastus, the city treasurer of Corinth
iii. Paul recommends Phoebe, of Corinth, to the Romans
4. What was the occasion for Paul’s letter to the Romans?
• It served as a formal introduction of Paul and his gospel to the church in Rome in preparation
for his eventual visit.
• He is trying to promote good relations between Jewish and Gentile Christian Churches
5. Why did Paul write Romans?
• The Gospel or the gospel of the righteousness of God is the theme of the whole letter.
• It is a great theological document, but it was written to address the particular needs of a specific
group of churches.
• Paul was fulfilling his duty to preach the gospel to the gentiles, he was addressing several needs
in the Roman church, and he was formally introducing himself to them in preparation for his
6. On what major divisions of Romans do most scholars agree?
• Epistolary prescript and thanksgiving (1:1-9)
• Preliminary comments (1:10-15)
• The message of the letter (1:16-17)
• Doctrinal section (1:16-11:36)
• Ethical section (12:1-15:13)
• Travel plans and prayer requests (15:14-33)
• Recommendations and greetings (16:1-23)
• Doxology (16:25-27) roper to call 1 and 2 Timothy an
7. When Paul says in Romans 3: 23 that “all have sinned and fall short of the glory of
God,” whom does he have in mind?
• He means all. Jews and Gentiles. All of humanity.
8. What rhetorical questions did Paul pose in Romans 6– 7, and what was his succinct
answer to each?
• Should we continue in sin that grace may multiply? Absolutely not!
• Should we sin because we are not under law but under grace? Absolutely not!
• Is the law Sin? Absolutely not!
• Therefore, did what is good become death to me? Absolutely not!
9. What role does the “therefore” play in Romans 12: 1?
• Paul is basing all of his ethical arguments on the theological arguments of God’s grace and
righteousness that he has just made.
• If they are true, the Romans should live their lives in the manner he lays before them.
10. How are individuals viewed by God as righteous?
• They are viewed as righteous through the imputed righteousness of Jesus Christ.
• It comes to us by means of the sacrificial death of Jesus.
11. What support is given by the authors for the following statement: “The
righteousness of God is a gift which God imputes to the sinner who believes in
• From faith to faith in 1:17 implies that the righteousness of God is only being revealed to those
• It is supported by the quotation of Habakkuk 2:4, stating that the righteous will live by faith.
• The righteousness of God refers to the imputed righteousness of God
• Justification occurs only because God counts a sinner as righteous.
Lecture 15: 1st Corinthians
Chapter 12 Study Questions
1. Why are the Corinthian letters especially practical for the modern church?
• They are theologically rich and practically helpful
• Paul addressed numerous problems in a church plagued by many problems. He applies
thoughtful theology to the issues demonstrating that theology was not static but makes a practical
difference in daily living.
• 1 Corinthians discusses Christian unity, morality, church ordinances, spiritual gifts, and the
resurrection of believers.
• 2 Corinthians helps us understand the new covenant.
2. Why the authorship of the Corinthian letters is not seriously contested in modern
• The ancient external evidence is very compelling
• The letter also deals with very personal issues in the church that dictates the way the letter
3. How many letters did Paul write to the Corinthian church? How are they
designated in this chapter? How do the letters coincide with Paul’s visits? List the
letters and the visits together in chronological order.
• Paul wrote at least four letters:
i. First visit: Paul planted the church in Corinth AD 50-52
ii. Paul wrote the “previous letter” or Corinthians
iii. Paul wrote 1 Corinthians from Ephesus in AD 53/54 aka Corinthians b
iv. Second visit: Painful visit
v. Paul wrote the “Severe Letter” aka Corinthians C
vi. Paul wrote 2 Corinthians from Macedonia in AD 54/55 aka Corinthians D
vii. Third visit
4. From where did Paul receive information about the church’s condition?
• Source 1: a group of people known as “members of Chloe’s people” reported to Paul about the
cult of personalities at the church
• Source 2: Stephanus, Fortunatus, and Achaicus, delivered a letter from the church to Paul to ask
several doctrinal and practical questions
7. What is the basic literary plan of 1 Corinthians?
• After his introduction and prayer of thanksgiving, Paul systematically addresses issues of
concern within the church.
9. Explain the nature of the believers’ resurrection bodies.
• The resurrection body will no longer experience the war that is presently waging between flesh
and Spirit. Instead, the resurrection body will be perfectly suited to the Spirit’s domination and
control and will joyfully comply with his will. The restoration of the image of God in believers
will be complete.
12. What is the relationship between the Christian ordinances (baptism and the Lord’s
Supper) and salvation?
• Paul believed the Old covenant pointed towards the new, but it was veiled.
• Through Christ, the new covenant was revealed and is much superior to the old.
• IN the old, all men were condemned because they could not fulfill their demands, but in the
new life and righteousness is produced through faith.
13. What are the Corinthian letters’ major contributions to the canon?
• Dealing with division and spiritual immaturity in the church
• Church discipline
• The respective advantages of singleness and marriage
• Principles for NT giving
• Spiritual gifts and the supremacy of love
• The resurrection of Christ and believers and the nature of the resurrection body
• The redemptive grace of suffering and the revelation of God’s power in human weakness
• Paul’s defense of his apostolic ministry
Lecture 17: 2 Corinthians
Chapter 12 Study Questions
5. What are the three major theories concerning Paul’s opponents in 2 Corinthians?
• Legalistic Judaizers similar to those Paul battled in Galatians
• Divine-man, which were self-centered super-apostles who claimed to have signs and wonders
and focused their message on self-glorification rather than Jesus.
6. What is the dual purpose of 1 Corinthians, and what is the main purpose of 2
• 1 Corinthians:
i. Paul wrote it to respond to reports and questions coming from the church dealing with several
ii. Self-glorification of leader’s
iii. Rampant sexual immorality in the church
iv. Disunity in the church
v. The rejection of the bodily resurrection
vi. Other issues within the church
• 2 Corinthians:
i. Paul wrote chapters 1-9 to address his reliability, to encourage the members to restore a
repentant fallen member, to show his apostolic qualifications, and to encourage them to fulfill
their pledge to help the poor Jerusalem church.
ii. Paul wrote chapters 10-13 to really defend his apostolic authority that was being questioned.
7. Why is it so difficult to understand the literary plan of 2 Corinthians?
• Many understand it to be a composite of several letters.
• Some believe that it is chiastic
• Most split it up as 1-7, 8-9, and 10-13, with the last likely being an addition to what Paul
originally intended to write
10. What is the relationship between the new and old covenants in 2 Corinthians?
• He did not believe that either guaranteed salvation or authorized believers to live in a sinful
manner. So no one should presume that they would protect them from divine wrath.
• He believed that salvation came through faith in Christ alone.
Chapter 18: Galatians and Ephesians
Chapter 14 Study Questions
1. What are some indications that Galatians has exerted enormous influence on
• The early church fathers wrote commentaries on Galatians more than any other book.
• It was a favorite of Martin Luther
• It has been the foundation for many forms of Christian doctrine, proclamation, and practice.
• Its most important contribution is the exposition of the doctrine of justification.
• It is the clearest dismissal of salvation through human effort.
2. What are the two possible destinations for Galatians?
• Either North or South Galatia
3. What is the support for each of these possibilities?
1. North Galatia:
• It was the view of the early church fathers and protestant reformers.
• The geography of the time of the church fathers had changed so that the cities Paul
visited in his first missionary journey were no longer considered Galatia.
• Some argue that Luke’s usage of the term Galatia in Acts suits the North Galatian
• In Acts 13:13-14 and 14:6, Luke identified locations based on geographical regions
rather than Roman provinces.
• Some argue that there is no hint in the letter of the strong opposition Paul faced in
2. South Galatia:
• Paul knew the Galatian readers personally
• The routes described in Acts seem to be a south Galatian route.
• Galatia encompassed Antioch, Lystra, Iconium, and Derbe.
4. How are the destination and the dating of Galatians interrelated?
• Those who espouse the South theory normally affirm a relatively early date for the letter, either
shortly after Paul’s first missionary journey or just before or shortly after the Jerusalem council.
• Those who accept the North theory typically affirm a later date, usually during Paul’s third
5. According to the authors, were Galatians written before or after the Jerusalem
Council? What evidence supports this claim?
• They believe it was before the Jerusalem council.
• The visit mentioned in Galatians 2 seems to correspond with the famine relief effort in Acts
11:28-30. If not, Paul would have neglected to mention a visit to Jerusalem in the letter.
• Paul also didn’t appeal to the Council’s decision in the letter.
• He mentions his visit to Syria and Cilicia, which occurred before the famine relief.
• Galatians was likely written AD 48 or 49
6. What was Paul’s primary purpose in writing Galatians?
• The issue of salvation by grace versus the Law of Moses permeated Paul’s Galatian ministry
and was the crux that divided Christian disciples from Galatian Jews.
• There had been people that came in after Paul left Galatia and insisted that Christians keep the
Law of Moses.
• So Paul wrote the letter to defend the gospel of justification by faith alone against that he false
gospel of the Judaizers.
7. Who were the Judaizers?
• They were false teachers that insisted on keeping the law of Moses; in particular, circumcision,
rather than faith in the gospel of grace alone, was essential to salvation.
8. What was their message?
Paul warned that requiring circumcision made the entire OT law obligatory.
9. Why did Paul rebuke the Galatians?
He rebukes the Galatians for abandoning the one true gospel by accepting the Judaizers’ claim
that circumcision is necessary for salvation.
10. What did Paul teach in Galatians concerning justification by faith versus works of
• Paul stresses that a person is justified by faith apart from the works of the law.
• Paul believes that the righteousness that qualifies an individual to pass the scrutiny of divine
judgment is alien righteousness placed on God’s people on the basis of his or her faith.
Justification and Sanctification are inseparable, but also distinguishable.
• Paul teaches that believers are declared righteous by God, both now and in eschatological
judgment, based on Christ’s sacrifice and in response to their faith in Jesus and not through
obedience to the OT Law.
11. What contributions to the canon does Galatians make?
• Gentiles included int the church on equal terms with the Jews; circumcision not required,
contrary to the false gospel of the Judaizers.
• Paul’s confrontation of Peter regarding the inclusion of the Gentiles, most likely prior to the
• Justification by faith; demonstration from Scripture that Abraham was also justified by faith
apart from works.
• Defense of Christian freedom from the demands of the law.
• Teaching on life in the Spirit and the fruit of the Spirit.
Lecture 20: 1 and 2 Thessalonians
Chapter 11 Study Questions
1. Why are the Thessalonian letters often neglected? Why are they significant?
• Probably due to the modest discussion in them regarding salvation.
• They are also short letters, and there are some questions of who the author is in 2
• But they are significant for providing insight into the missionary methods and message of Paul
• They are invaluable for the insights that they give regarding the return of Jesus Christ, the
resurrection of believers, the eternal punishment of the wicked, and the events immediately
preceding the return of Jesus.
• They also offer helpful instructions regarding sanctification, election, and the Christian work
2. Which one of the letters do many modern scholars reject as Paul’s? Why?
• They reject 2 Thessalonians.
• It is missing from one early manuscript.
• Schmidt argued that the eschatology in the two letters is contradictory.
• It is believed that Paul predicted the reign of Nero, meaning he wrote it afterward.
• The language between the two letters is so similar it must be forged.
• Some theology in the second letter stands in tension with theology from the first.
3. What role does theology play in assigning authorship to 2 Thessalonians?
• Trilling argued that certain theological themes in 2 Thessalonians stand in tension with Paul’s
• One is God’s judgment of the wicked, but Paul does address that elsewhere.
• Trilling overlooks the specific situation that the author was addressing as it seeks to comfort
believers who are suffering from intense persecution.
• Scholars also confuse imminence with immediacy when it comes to Paul’s eschatology.
• Trilling also argues that the title of Lord for Jesus is uncommon, but it is seen throughout Paul’s
4. When were 1 Thessalonians likely written? How much time passed between the
penning of 2 Thessalonians and 1 Thessalonians?
• It was likely written in 50 AD during his second missionary journey soon after he fled
• 2 Thessalonians was likely written several months after the earlier letter, perhaps in the winter
5. What are some of the primary reasons Paul wrote the Thessalonian letters?
• They were both written to address the specific needs of the church in Thessalonica.
1. First was written to
i. Encourage the church in times of persecution
ii. Defend Paul’s purity and motives behind his mission.
iii. Urge the church to live holy lives characterized by sexual purity
iv. Define a Christian work ethic
v. Correct confusion about the return of Christ
vi. Prompt the church to respect its leaders
2. The second was written to
i. Encourage the church in times of persecution and promise final vindication
ii. Correct confused views about the end time caused by misrepresentations of Paul’s teachings
iii. Give extensive directions to the church for dealing with the idle.
6. What was the cause of the Thessalonians’ deficient work ethic?
They somehow had confused their eschatology and were refusing to work and living
irresponsibly and relying on the rest of the church to survive.
7. How does rhetorical criticism help the modern reader better understand the
• It helps to understand the purpose and plan in Paul’s letters.
•1 Thessalonians is best described as an epideictic (praise or blame) rhetoric. It is used praise to
get its audience to continue doing something and blame to get them to stop.
•2 Thessalonians is best described as deliberative rhetoric. It is to persuade people to follow a
particular course of action in the future.
8. What are the five major rhetorical components of 1 Thessalonians, and how do they
•Exordium – it is the introduction that states the main theme of the letter
•Narratio – states the facts of the writer’s case
•Transitus – provides transition
•Probation – proofs that establish the writer’s positions
•Peroration – a closing that restates the principal theme of the letter
9. Who is “the man of lawlessness” in 2 Thessalonians 2? Who has been identified as
• A figure, likely the antichrist, who will lead a great rebellion against God’s authority
• He is also called the son of destruction because he will be destroyed by Christ.
10. Which position regarding the rapture finds most support in 1 Thessalonians, and
• It is not that of a pretribulation rapture, but one where Christians meet Christ in the air and
return to the earth to reign with him. If Paul believed the rapture would happen before the
tribulation, he would have mentioned that the church was still there after the Day of the Lord had
11. What is the most significant contribution of the Thessalonian letters to the NT
1. The teaching on the Christian work ethic
2. Teaching about the rapture and the second coming of Christ.
3. Teaching about the antichrist and the man of lawlessness
4. Calling by God and Believers election
SECTION 5: GENERAL EPISTLES
Lecture 27: Jude
Chapter 18 Study Questions
11. Why is Jude probably not pseudonymous?
Jude was not well-known. Generally, pseudonymous letters used the name of someone wellknown.
12. Who were most likely the “false teachers” mentioned in Jude?
Itinerant teachers and preachers who relied on financial support from the churches.
13. Succinctly, what contributions do 1 and 2 Peter and Jude make to the canon?
The divine inspiration of the prophetic scriptures
Lecture 29: Epistles of John
Chapter 19 Study Question
1. What are three alternative proposals to John’s authorship of the Johannine Letters?
1. Unknown elder John
2. A follower of the apostle John
3. The legendary “John the Elder” in Asia Minor
2. How would you summarize the internal and external evidence for John’s authorship?
John’s authorship attested by
— External evidence—the early church
— Internal evidence—the text itself
–> Leon Morris suggest five points that the internal evidence says
about its author:
1) He was Jew
2) He was of Palestine
3) He was an eyewitness
4) He was an apostle (one of the Twelve)
5) He was the apostle John (Morris, Studies of the Fourth Gospel, 218).
2. Which of these was probably written first: John’s Gospel or John’s Letters?
John’s Gospel was written first as it addresses the issues of misunderstanding the gospel in the
early 80s and 90s.
4. What is the major occasion for John’s writing of 1 John? What specific reference backs
up your point?
John addresses his congregation as little children, friends, young men, and fathers to establish a
close relationship with his readers. He does not mention specific places and names, and he tries
to be general in his teachings. John focused on the truth when addressing believers.
5. Which major heresy is combated in 1 John?
1. Proto-Gnosticism (an early form of Gnosticism)
–rooted in Platonic philosophy, the matter is evil, and the spirit is good
–consequently, Jesus could not have been a real human (i.e., no incarnation)
2. Corinthians (the heresy of Cerinthus)
–christ the spirit came upon the human Jesus at his baptism and departed at his crucifixion
3. Docetism (Greek word δοκειν (dokein), “to seem”)
–the divine Son of God only appeared to be human, but he, in reality, was not.
6. What are the three major heresies perpetrated by the false teachers?
The denial of Jesus as God, truth is a Person, lifestyle and message is a person, and Jesus could
not have been a real human
7. What are two major purposes for John’s writing of 1 John?
1. To expose false teachers
2. To give believers assurance of salvation
8. What are the purposes for John’s writing of 2 John and 3, John?
To emphasize that God is the love and light in our lives and everyone should demonstrate God’s
love and light.
9. Who is the “chosen lady”?
10. What typical literary pattern do 2 and 3 John follow? What makes the structure of 1
John so difficult to discern?
In a word, the answer is subtlety. The topical transitions are virtually seamless, and the various
subjects recur in cyclical intervals throughout the letter. Nevertheless, given the clear structure of
John’s Gospel and Revelation, as well as the careful nuances displayed within the various
paragraphs, it seems unlikely that the author had no plan in mind when writing the letter. 101
With regard to the structure of 1 John, there is a wide agreement only with regard to the preface
(1: 1– 4) and the epilogue (5: 13– 21). The structural proposals for 1 John.
Lecture 31: Revelation
Chapter 20 Study Questions
Who are the three major candidates for the authorship of Revelation? The Apostle
John, John, who was Zebedee’s son, who is most likely? The Johannine apostolic
What are the two major alternatives for the time of Revelation’s composition?
Revelation may have been composed between 64 and 69 AD or between 95 and 96 AD. However,
most people support the latter period.
What date is favored by the internal evidence?
Internal evidence suggests 85 to 89 AD.
4. What date is favored by the external evidence?
The mid-second century.
5. What are some of the major pieces of internal evidence that have a bearing on the date of
(1) The persecution experienced by the churches of Asia Minor;
(2) The spiritual condition of these churches;
(3) The emperor cult;
(4) The reference to the Jerusalem temple in 11: 1– 2;
(5) The “Nero redivivus myth” (though not explicitly mentioned in the book);
(6) The references to “Babylon” in Revelation; and
(7) The seven “heads” mentioned in 17: 9– 11.
6. What were the occasion and purpose of the book of Revelation?
Jesus directly commanded John to write the Revelation so that the book may comfort and encourage
Christians, who were oppressed and tired, to remain steadfast in their faith. The book would also
sanctify the church and reveal the events leading to His return for the establishment of His
7. Define apocalypse. What are some of its accompanying traits?
The apocalypse is a genre of literature written between 200 BC and AD 200, classically defined as “a
genre of revelatory literature with a narrative framework, in which a revelation is mediated by an
otherworldly being to a human recipient, disclosing a transcendent reality which is both temporal,
insofar as it involves another, supernatural world.” An apocalypse endeavors to interpret earthly
circumstances based on the supernatural world and future events and to impact the
audience’s understanding and behavior through divine authority. It also bears supernatural world
elements and eschatological salvation.
8. How many visions are recorded in Revelation, and what phrase indicates a new vision?
The Revelation records four visions, during which John was “in the Spirit.”
9. What are the respective locations of these visions, and what is the range of chapters for
each vision in the book of Revelation?
The first vision, recorded in chapters 1 to 3, occurs on the island of Patmos. The second vision,
recorded from chapter 4 to 16, occurs in heaven during the divine court proceedings. The third
vision, partially recorded in chapter 21 and completed in chapter 22, occurs atop a mountain during
the renewal of creation.
10. What are the three primary theories of relating the seals, trumpets, and bowls in
Each of the bowls contains God’s wrath. The seal judgments affect a quarter of the earth and the
people therein, while the trumpets affect one third; the bowls unleash God’s full fury. Each of the
judgments brought through these three elements indicates a direct pronouncement from the divine
11. What are the four primary approaches to the study of the book of Revelation? Briefly
describe each in one or two sentences.
The Preterist approach takes a historical perspective to Revelation, with the notion that the
events therein already happened in the first century. In the Historicist approach, the Revelation is
a harbinger of the events that would affect Western Europe’s popes and kings. Evangelical
Christians favor the Futuristic approach, which regards the world as though living in different
ages. The Idealist approach regards Revelation as symbolic of the timeless spiritual war between
good and evil.