Ob assignment 1


Figure 1: UCP logo

Muhammad Aryan Khan
Roll no: F1F18BBAM0073
Section: BBA 6C


Challenges and opportunities for managers in using OB concepts: A brief discussion in
Pakistani context.

Organizational behavior:
Organizational behavior is the study of both group and individual performance and activity
within an organization. This area of study examines human behavior in a work environment and
determines its impact on job structure, performance, communication, motivation, leadership, etc.
In Pakistan Challenges and opportunities for organizational behavior are massive and rapidly
changing for improving productivity and meeting business goals.
Main challenges and opportunities for managers of organizational behavior in Pakistan
1. Improving Peoples’ Skills.
2. Improving Quality and Productivity.
3. Total Quality Management (TQM).
4. Increase performance level
5. Being understaffed
6. Managing workforce diversity
7. Lack of communication
8. Responding to globalization.
9. Empowering people.
10. The emergence of E-Organization & E-Commerce.
11. Improving Customer Service.
Improving Peoples’ Skills:
As we know in Pakistan Technological changing, structural changes, environmental changes are
accelerated at a faster rate in the business field. Unless employees and executives are equipped to
possess the required skills to adapt to those changes, the targeted goals cannot be achieved in
There two different categories of skills – managerial skills and technical skills. Some of
the managerial skills include listening skills, motivating skills, planning and organizing skills,
leading skills, problem-solving skills, and decision-making skills.

In Pakistan these skills can be enhanced by organizing a series of training and development
programs, career development programs, induction, and socialization.
Improving Quality and Productivity
In Pakistan quality is the extent to which the customers or users believe the product or service
surpasses their needs and expectations.
For example, a customer who purchases an automobile has a certain expectation, one of which is
that the automobile engine will start when it is turned on.
If the engine fails to start, the customer’s expectations will not have been met and the customer
will perceive the quality of the car as poor. The key dimensions of quality as follows.

Performance: Primary rating characteristics of a product such as signal coverage, audio
quality, display quality, etc.

Features: Secondary characteristics, added features, such as calculators, and alarm clock
features in hand phone

Conformance: meeting specifications or industry standards, the workmanship of the
degree to which a product’s design or operating characteristics match pre-established

Reliability: The probability of a product’s falling within a specified period

Durability: It is a measure of a product’s life having both economic and technical

Services: Resolution of problem and complaints, ease of repair

Response: Human to human interfaces, such as the courtesy of the dealer « Aesthetics:
Sensory characteristics such exterior finish

Reputations: Past performance and other intangibles, such as being ranked first.

More and more in Pakistan managers are confronting to meet the challenges to fulfill the specific
requirements of customers. To improve quality and productivity, they are implementing
programs like total quality management and reengineering programs that require extensive
employee involvement.


Total Quality Management (TQM):

Total Quality Management (TQM) is a philosophy of management that is driven by the constant
attainment of customer satisfaction through the continuous improvement of all organizational
In Pakistan components of TQM are;
(a) An intense focus on the customer,
(b) Concern for continual improvement.
(c) Improvement in the quality of everything the organization
(d) Accurate measurement.
(e) Empowerment of employees.
Increase performance levels:
In Pakistan employees usually experience periods of time where they are not as productive as
usual. A decrease in productivity can sometimes affect other team members and overall goals,
making it important to help employees feel motivated.
Managers who consistently review processes and procedures within the company can increase
efficiency. Perform a workflow analysis to review your current systems and restructure weak
areas. Another way to address this challenge is by asking questions and offering solutions to their
problems. One-on-one meetings provide a great opportunity for managers to reestablish work
hours and expectations regarding work productivity.


Being understaffed:
In Pakistan managers must recognize when it’s time to hire another team member to help fulfill
responsibilities within their department. Because the hiring process is time-consuming, it’s
helpful to get assistance from other managers and human resources professionals when pursuing
a new candidate.
If needed, ask for help when creating a job description, interviewing applicants and selecting the
right person for the desired role. Consider having applicants complete a sample work test to help
you determine the best fit for your team.
Managing workforce diversity:

This refers to employing different categories of employees who are heterogeneous in terms of
gender, race, ethnicity, relation, community, physically disadvantaged, elderly people, etc.
The primary reason to employ the heterogeneous category of employees is to tap the talents and
potentialities, harnessing the innovativeness, obtaining synergetic effect among the divorce
In Pakistan and in mostly countries, employees wanted to retain their individual and cultural
identity, values and lifestyles even though they are working in the same organization with
common rules and regulations. The major challenge for organizations in Pakistan is to become
more accommodating to diverse groups of people by addressing their different lifestyles, family
needs, and work styles.
Lack of communication
In Pakistan another challenge manager’s face when overseeing teams is ensuring effective
communication. Because every team member has a different personality, there is a chance for
miscommunication from time to time.
Increase the frequency of communication to ensure employees know exactly what you expect of
them and when you need them to complete it. Redefine standards that reinforce your team’s goals
and purposes. Consider implementing a messaging platform for the workplace that allows
everyone to communicate quickly. Let them know if you prefer one form of contact over


Responding to Globalization

Today’s business is mostly market-driven; wherever the demands exist irrespective of distance,
locations, climatic conditions, and the business
Operations are expanded to gain their market share and to remain in the top rank, etc. Business
operations are no longer restricted to a particular locality or region. The company’s products or
services are spreading across nations using mass communication, the internet, faster
transportation, etc.
More than 95% of Nokia (Now Microsoft) headphones are being sold outside of their home
country Finland. Japanese cars are being sold in different parts of the globe. Sri Lankan tea is
exported to many cities around the globe.
Garment products of Pakistan are exporting in the USA and EU countries. Executives of
Multinational corporations are very mobile and move from one subsidiary to another more

Empowering People
The main issue in Pakistan is that we are delegating more power and responsibility to the lower
level cadre of employees and assigning more freedom to make choices about their schedules,
operations, procedures and the method of solving their work-related problems.
Encouraging the employees to participate in the work-related decision will sizable enhance their
commitment to work. Empowerment is defined as putting employees in charge of what they do
by eliciting some sort of ownership in them.
In Pakistan managers are doing considerably further by allowing employees full control of their
work. Movement implies constant change an increasing number of organizations are using selfmanaged teams, where workers operate largely without a boss. Due to the implementation of

empowerment concepts across all the levels, the relationship between managers and the
employees is reshaped. Managers will act as coaches, advisors, sponsors, facilitators and help
their subordinates to do their tasks with minimal guidance.
The emergence of E-Organization & E-Commerce
It refers to the business operations involving the electronic mode of transactions. It encompasses
presenting products on websites and filling the order. The vast majority of articles and media
attention given to using the Internet in business are directed at online shopping.
In this process, the marketing and selling of goods and services are being carried out over the
Internet in Pakistan and all over the world In e-commerce, the following activities are being
taken place quite often – In Pakistan the tremendous numbers of people who are shopping on the
Internet, business houses are setting up websites where they can sell goods, conducting the
following transactions such as getting paid and fulfilling orders. It is a dramatic change in the
way a company relates to its customers. At present e-commerce is exploding. Globally, ecommerce spending was increasing at a tremendous rate.
Improving Customer Service:
In Pakistan OB can contribute to improving organizational performance by showing drat how
employees’ attitudes and behavior are associated with customer satisfaction. In that case, service
should be the first production-oriented by using technological opportunities like a computer, the
internet, etc.
To improve customer service in Pakistan we need to provide sales service and also the after-sales


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