Policies for environmental protection and preventing climate change 3

Policies for Environmental Protection and Preventing Climate Change
Policies for Environmental Protection and Preventing Climate Change
Over the years, the issue of climate change has been a subject of discussion and has
received undivided attention among nations due to its impacts that transcend international
boundaries and are felt in equal measure by every country. As a result, various nations have
developed and implemented policies aimed at mitigating climate change by reducing those
practices that significantly contribute to global warming in a bid to avoid future adverse effects
on living things. However, this projection has become a challenge to the policymakers, forcing
them to devise a mechanism for creating laws and regulations that will effectively respond to
global warming threats. While most countries are at the forefront of developing environmental
protection policies, other nations, including developed nations, still lag behind even in the 21st
century. This is attributed to the fact that some of these nations have oil-dependent economies
and unfavorable political environments, while others are still manufacturing cars and other
machinery that rely on fossil fuels. Still, addressing environmental issues is a costly initiative
globally as it consumes a lot of resources in doing research, making the right policies, and
implementing these regulations. This makes poor nations struggle to afford enough resources to
deal with the most pressing environmental challenges, unlike rich countries that can easily deal
with climate change. In this regard, this paper will evaluate why some countries adopt tough
policies that aid environmental protection and avert climate change, whereas others are left
Jordan vs Sweden
Although Sweden and Jordan are two different countries with diverse characteristics,
they enjoy several similar features. The salient and comparable one is their population, with
approximately 10 million residents. For decades, Sweden has displayed a longstanding
commitment to safeguard the environment from climate change by setting laws and regulations
that greatly reduce air pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and nitrogen leaching. Notably, the
country has set tough targets to be fulfilled in the future, making innovation a never-ending
journey and making the country strive to meet its environmental goals and objectives. Sweden
has established a robust, innovation-oriented, and good environmental governance structure,
standing as the most inventive OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and
Development) country in relation to environmental technology pioneered by various policy
instruments (OECD, 2022). These regulations weigh and put a price on harmful environmental
practices and set ambitious climate goals, and focus on how to attain them, installing the quality
of the environment.
On the other hand, like any other country, Jordan has been marred by climate change
threats that need to be addressed to protect the nation from environmental dangers. Although the
country has adopted laws, measures, and instruments to reduce negative externalities, Jordan’s
environmental regulations, according to Shamaileh (2016), majorly rely on a command and
control approach to deal with these climatic threats, a strategy that is deemed ineffective as it
overlooks price-based and right technology-based approaches, which are more efficient in
dealing with climate change in developed countries. This reason creates a need to incorporate
price-based and technology-based systems on top of command and control measures to aid the
country in its fight for sustainable practices. Overall, the major environmental issues faced by
Jordan include deforestation, water pollution, overgrazing, and insufficient water resources, all
of which need to be addressed through good strategies and policymaking processes.
Canada vs Australia
Australia and Canada have about the same GDP (Gross Domestic Product) per capita of
approximately $44,000 despite having varying environmental policies and regulations. In
Australia, the government has come up with environmental sustainability policies such as
Environmental Protection and Biodiversity Act that help in environmental conservation, thus,
preventing adverse climate change (McGrath, 2005). These policies develop measures and
targets for carbon emissions, waste, and sustainable energy use. The agency mandated to develop
and implement regulations sets up environmental standards that bring about sustainability in all
human activities. Overall, the government of Australia is committed to lessening the impact of
climate change on the environment and human health by complying with set out legal
obligations, minimizing pollution, and applying a systematic environmental management
approach that is in line with international standards; ISO 14001.
Conversely, Canada has engaged in quite a number of international agreements and
partnerships in its quest to address climate change issues that have posed a threat to the world at
large. The country’s federal government has come up with Clean Air and Climate Change Act, a
regulation that addresses air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions that put the environment
and human health at risk and needs to be dealt with (Government of Canada, 2006). Notably, this
particular bill addresses and stipulates national standards regarding air pollution to ensure that
the corporations are in compliance. On the same note, the Canadian Environmental Protection
Act (1999) has been put in place to ensure that the government has more power and right to use
this authority to prevent pollution and protect the environment and human life by eliminating
toxic substances, wastes and pollutants through the application of technology. This Act, among
other regulations, has been of great importance in Canada as they are utilized in complex and
easy decision-making processes to prevent short-term and long-term impacts brought about by
climate change.
Reasons why countries adopt aggressive policies while others lag behind
A country’s economy is a significant determinant of its response to climate change as it
largely affects the policymaking process and securing the right tools to deal with this issue
adequately. Varying economic conditions among global countries make rich countries easily
afford all the necessities to curb the adverse effects of climate change. In contrast, poor countries
struggle to acquire resources, lagging behind in environmental conservation efforts (Debelle,
2019). This is because dealing with climate change requires adequate resources to put up
effective policies, conduct research, and purchase the essential sophisticated instruments and
technological tools that are beyond the reach of developing countries. The vast resources
possessed by developed nations make it easier for them to attain sustainable development. In this
regard, they can easily balance their growth and protect their environment in the best way
possible since they have supportive tools and professionals to guide them throughout the entire
In today’s global environment, there is a sharp division between leaders and responsibility
concerning climate change and global warming. This issue falls under the political landscape and
must be dealt with politically to realize long-lasting solutions to maintain the safety of human
and animal life. Some countries are lagging in terms of preparedness and response to climate
change because some leaders or even political parties do not believe in climate change, making
them reluctant to support related initiatives (Ziegler, 2017). Supportive politicians or leaders
within the government who are of goodwill can help easily combat climate change by providing
resources in every financial year to help in policy-making, purchasing the right technology,
training citizens, and conducting research. Such leaders are impactful in implementing and
enforcing local and international environmental standards to reduce toxic emissions from the
industries, address air and water pollution to prevent their harmful effects, and reduce their
chances of causing adverse climate change (Levy and Patz, 2015). This is opposed to leaders or
parties who do not believe in climate change and therefore do not care about its repercussions,
making some nations be left behind.
Countries across the globe have varying potential a circumstance that divides the world
into two, that is, developed and developing countries. Incidentally, some nations are not
developed enough to transition and are preoccupied with other issues, or worse off if they try to
transition. This makes them attend to critical issues such as addressing health crises and poverty
levels, a gap which they must fill before turning to climate change issues (Reddy and Assenza,
2009). These prioritized obstacles lead to capital inadequacies in the economy, leaving very little
or no resources to protect the environment and prevent climate change in less developed
countries. Finally, developed countries are more privileged as they are preoccupied with fewer
such issues, making them have readily available resources that can be utilized to curtail this
environmental menace.
Addressing climate change calls for collective global efforts of enacting and
implementing environmental conservations policies and measures. This can only be achieved
when nations, particularly developed countries, come together to support environmental
sustainability initiatives in developing nations. Overall, the international community has come up
with various conventions that underscore the link between equity, poverty, and environmental
conservation practices, enabling nations to come up with policies geared towards climate change.
Finally, there is a need for countries to adopt green alternatives such as the manufacture of
electric cars that significantly reduce the utilization of fossil fuels. This will go a long way in
reducing greenhouse emissions and consequently curbing climate change.
Debelle, G., 2019, March. Climate change and the economy. In Speech at a public forum hosted
by Centre for Policy Development, Sydney, Australia, March (Vol. 12).
https://publications.gc.ca/collections/Collection/En84-46-2006E.pdf [Accessed 9 April
Levy, B.S. and Patz, J.A., 2015. Climate change, human rights, and social justice. Annals of
global health, 81(3), pp.310-322.
McGrath, C., 2005. Key Concepts of the Environment Protection and Biodiversity Conservation
Act 1999 (Cth). Environmental and Planning Law Journal, 22(1), pp.20-39.
Oecd.org. 2022. OECD Environmental performance review of Sweden: Assessment and
recommendations – OECD. [online] Available at https://www.oecd.org/env/countryreviews/sweden2014.htm [Accessed 9 April 2022].
Reddy, B.S. and Assenza, G.B., 2009. Climate change—a developing country perspective.
Current Science, pp.50-62.
Shamaileh, A.Y., 2016. An evaluation of the effectiveness of environment policy in Jordan.
International Journal of Business and Management, 11(2), p.92.
Ziegler, A., 2017. Political orientation, environmental values, and climate change beliefs and
attitudes: An empirical cross country analysis. Energy Economics, 63, pp.144-153.

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