POLITICS AND GOVERNANCE – Sample Exam Paper
Instructions: Please read each questions below. Respond to the following questions using your own
words in an essay format.
1. What are the three branches of the government in the Philippines?
In the Philippines, there are three branches of the government: the Legislative branch, the
Executive branch, and the Judicial branch. The powers of the branches of the government are
granted by the Philippine Constitution. Let me now explain the three branches of the Philippine
government in terms of my personal knowledge.
The Philippine Constitution gives the Legislative branch of the government the ability to
establish, amend, and abolish laws. To put it another way, the Legislative branch is the the lawmaking body of the Philippines. This was included in the Constitution’s Article VI. The
Philippine Congress, commonly known as the Bicameral Congress, is made up of two divisions:
the upper house and the lower house. The term bi refers to two, implying that the Legislative
branch consists of two chambers, the Senate and the House of Representatives. The Senate is the
Philippines’ upper house, made up of senators. It is made up of 24 senators who are elected by
eligible voters in the Philippines, as permitted by law. It is led by a Senate President, who is the
highest-ranking official in the Philippine Senate as well as the third highest and most powerful
official in the Philippine government. The house of representatives, often known as the “lower
house,” is made up of 250 members and is divided into two groups: district representatives and
partylist representatives. It is headed by the house speaker and it is composed of the
The Executive branch is the next branch of the government. “Executive” refers to the process of
carrying out the law. The President, Vice President, and Cabinet Secretaries of the Philippines
make up the Executive branch. The President of the Philippines is the country’s head of state and
government, as well as the commander-in-chief of the Philippine Armed Forces. Article VII,
Section 1 of the 1987 Constitution gives the President of the Philippines executive authority,
wherein, he has the right to select members of the Philippines’ cabinet secretaries, as specified by
the Constitution. The President of the Philippines’ principal objective is to guarantee the
country’s excellent governance. All executive departments, bureaus, and offices must be under
the president’s supervision. The President of the Philippines is chosen for a six-year term by
direct election. The President of the Philippines has jurisdiction over all executive departments,
bureaus, and offices, which is one of the executive branch’s powers of control. This involves
reorganization, reconfiguration, and the appointment of their respective authorities. The
executive branch is in charge of enforcing the law, notably through prosecuting lawbreakers, as
well as appointing officials and overseeing the administration of government duties.
Meanwhile, the Judicial branch is the third branch of government. This branch is also known as
the one who synthesize or evaluate the law. This branch of the government has the authority to
resolve disputes concerning legally demandable and enforceable rights. It assesses whether there
has been a substantial unlawful act on the part and instrumentality of the government, resulting
in a lack or excess of jurisdiction. The Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Court of Tax Appeals,
Sandiganbayan, and other lower courts, such as Regional Trial Courts, Shari’a District Courts,
and so on, make up the Judicial branch. Judicial Review is the power granted by the Constitution
to the Supreme Court to declare a treaty, international or executive agreement, legislation,
presidential decree, declarations, order, instruction, ordinance, or regulation unconstitutional.
Each branch of the Philippine government has its own powers and responsibilities, including
working with the other branches, in order to guarantee that the government is functional and
individuals’ rights are safeguarded. The division of powers also prohibits one branch of
government from exerting dominance over the others or dictating legislation to the general
2. What is the importance of having three branches of the Philippines government?
The concept of separation of powers, which states that legislation belongs to Congress, execution
to the Executive, and resolution of legal disputes to the Judiciary, is one of the most essential
corollaries of a presidential form of government. A rule must be made, implemented, and have a
location where it may be disputed when two parties believe they are obeying the rule. Thus, it is
truly important that the Philippine government should be divided into these three branches.
The three branches of the Philippine government provide an excellent system for supervising all
of the government’s responsibilities, which are properly divided into three categories. The best
system, according to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, would be to have three different, clearly
delineated powers, any of which might undermine the others. As a result, no single branch of that
power could ever work in its own best interests above the interests of the nation as a whole. We
can obviously see how this creates the essential division of powers, which prevents any single
individual from wielding excessive power.
One aspect of a democratic and Republican state is the establishment of the three branches of
government through the use of separation of powers and checks and balances. Through the
system of checks and balances, the Philippine government strives to work for the benefit of the
citizens. The three branches of government are characterized based on their responsibilities and
goals. The objective of the separation of powers, often known as the three branches, is to clearly
define or limit their respective powers and how they use them, with the primary purpose of
avoiding biased or abuse of power. This will help in preventing the grave abuse or misuse of
powers and the possible corruption among leaders.
3. Is there an interconnection between
government? Justify your answer.
Even though the three branches of the Philippine government are recognised to have completely
seperate, independent powers and responsibilities, they still are interconnected with one another,
and no matter the circumstance, they must work together to develop strong governance with the
defining characteristics of accountability, fair treatment, and efficiency, using the powers granted
to them by the Philippine Constitution.
According to the 1987 Philippine Constitution, a system of checks and balances was developed
to ensure that no branch of the Philippine government would utterly dominate or control the
others. The legislative branch, for example, has checks and balances on the judicial branch, such
as the senate approving justices, the house having the power to impeach justices, the congress
having the means to propose amendments, the congress having the power to determine court
jurisdiction, and so on. The Judicial branch, on the other hand, contains checks and balances
against the Executive branch, such as judicial review, and the chief justice serves as the senate
president during impeachment trials. The system of checks and balances is established so that
each branch can adhere to the acts of the other branches. When we talk about checks and
balances, we are referring to the requirement for the three branches of government to unite. Their
department must be cross-checked and balanced with each other. If we want to pass a legislation
into law, for example, there must be a connection between the three branches.
The fundamental goal of the checks and balances system is to discover, examine, and cooperate
in how each branch may check or respond to the actions of the others. A balance of powers in
this sense indicates that each branch has the ability to “check” or prevent anything from
happening. Since each branch of government has its own set of powers, it may function as a
check on the other branches’ actions and behaviors.
4. What is the most important branch of the Philippines government?
The three branches of the Philippine government are the reason why the Philippines is as
harmonious as it is today. Without one of these branches, our entire country would crumble.
These branches are specifically designated by the Constitution as having autonomous powers,
implying that they are all vital and useful to our country as a whole. There is no such thing as
“most” important among the Philippine government’s branches because they are all equal and
have their own set of powers and responsibilities to the people they are supposed to rule. Each of
the three branches of government is important in a democracy, and each must have effective
checks and balances.
Consider how removing any one of the three branches of government would have a significant
negative influence on our country. For instance, if the Legislative Branch were removed, we
would be unable to pass any new legislation. We would not be able to pass new laws when they
were needed, like as in the current scenario with the COVID-19 outbreak. On the other hand, if
the Executive branch is eliminated, no one will be able to sign a bill into law. People would not
have all of their rights if there were no laws. Most importantly, we would not have a President,
who is the executive branch’s head. If the Judicial Branch were to be abolished, laws would be
unable to be interpreted, and we would have no way of knowing whether or not someone was
abiding by the law. The Philippine Government adheres to the idea of “separation of powers”
among the three branches, to ensure freedom of action and impartial fulfillment of their
The most essential duty of government should be to establish and maintain an environment and
infrastructure that allows the population it represents to live meaningful and fulfilled lives
without fear of violence or punishment. As a result, the three branches of the Philippine
government must be excellent colleagues who respect one other yet are not afraid to call out each
other when they do anything wrong. Finally, remember that the three branches of government are
entrusted with functioning as a check and balance on one another, as well as the three bodies that
must collectively maintain our Constitution’s supreme law.
5. Which is the highest and most powerful among the three branches of the government?
The government was formed with three “co-equal” branches. At different instances and in
different circumstances, the legislative, judicial, and executive departments of government are all
powerful. Logically, each of the three branches is supposed to have checks and balances on the
others and, in that sense, be equal. They are supposed to act as a check and balance on each
other’s power. The constitution connects the Executive, Legislative, and Judicial branches of
government. The president approves or amends the legislation, but when they return to the
Senate, they can override a presidential decision with a veto, and the bill becomes law.
All three branches are equal in power, according to the 1987 Philippine Constitution. The
legislative establishes the law, the executive administers it, and the judiciary decides on the
legality of the laws enacted by the legislature and the validity of legislative acts. The judiciary
cannot make laws on its own, and it cannot take the role of the executive branch. As a result,
many people believe that the three branches of the Philippine government are all equally
powerful. Theoretically, the three branches of government are considered to be co-equal.
Moreover, the three branches of government were meant to be roughly equal in terms of power,
with checks and balances against one another. None of the branches of government are
theoretically “most” powerful in a country with good constitutional checks and balances. This
happens to be true in the long run, yet at any given moment, one branch may appear to have
greater power than the others. It is impossible to compare the incomparable. Each flower is
distinct from the others and impossible to draw comparisons. Even amongst incomparable
flowers, you may always compare one element of a certain flower. This also goes with how each
branch of the Philippine government was created with the intention of being equal in strength
In conclusion, no branch should be the “most” powerful because they all rely on one other.
Congress enacts laws, the Supreme Court interprets them in accordance with the Constitution,
and the Executive Branch puts them into action. There are a variety of checks and balances in
place to ensure that no one government branch gains greater authority than the others. The three
branches of government — executive, legislative, and judicial — are aware that they each have
distinct types of power, but they must work together to create successful legislation.