Practical research

Nature of Inquiry and Research
RESEARCH- Is not just about gathering of information
INQUIRY-Gathering info or asking information
Research is not reviewing of facts to validate its legitimacy.
Research is not only about transportation of facts from one location to another.
Research is not a catch word used to get attention
Research is not all about interviewing expert and professional.
Research originates from a problem
Research is a series of problems
Research is goal oriented that requires clear articulation of objective.
Research requires scientific plan and execution
Research requires collection of data with interpretation.
Research concludes only based on the result of
the study.(Research does not stop)
The key distinction between inquiry and research
is that inquiry is a method that seeks to increase
knowledge,overcome concerns,or solve a problem
and research is a structured work
systematically conducted to increase info stocks.
problems with goals that follows a scientific
process supported with interpretative data which
only concludes based on result.
Qualitative and Quantitative Research
Difference by means of data
(Acc. to Crossman 2020)Qualitative Research
A type of social science research that collects
and works with non-numerical data.
Qualitative- data although the data is non numerical
it doesn’t mean we don’t use statistics or mathematics we use categorical data(based
on attributes etc)
Quantitative-A type of research that uses numerical data to identify large scale trends
and employs statistical operations to determine casual and correlative relationships
between variables.(Survey)
Difference by means of literature:
Qualitative-It showcases a “blank spot (gap)”wherein
the related literature available in your
research topic is”limited”that enables you to generate a new idea or
Quantitative-It enables your literature to have a “blind spot (gap)”wherein there are
contradicting information resulting to a “gap”so you will be identifying the
acceptability and rejectability of the information based on your own findings.
We are also identifying the blind spot.
Natural Sciences-It is the science of naturally occurring objects or phenomena,such as
light,objects matter,earth,celestial bodies,or the human body.
(More on description)
Social Science-It is the science of people or collections of people,such as groups,firms,
socialies or economies,and their individual or collective behaviors.
Research designs:Qualitative&Quantitative
Research Methods:Descriptive & Experimental
Method:The strategy or technique to implement the plan
Descriptive Research:
1.Descriptive Case Study-Detailed and in-depth with few respondents(at least 10) but
lengthy in procedure,also know as monogram.
2.Descriptive Survey-Gathering relatively limited data from a relatively large number
of cases.(can be integrated in quantitative research)
Types of Survey:
Total Population-examines the entire population
Sample-collect data from a subset of the population
Public or Social-Get the polls of the public on a issue.
School-people involve in academe,personal,students
Poll-Consist only one question
Market-people in the business field
comparative-instrument to collect data
Longitudinal-conducting a research that takes a long time,takes years.
Cross sectional-court cases
Job analysis-Job satisfaction,evaluation of performance
Community-Usually done by health workers.
3.Descriptive Comparative Study–Comparing 2 variables and establishing a formal
procedure to conclude that one is better than the other.
(method on how will you implement the plan)
4.Descriptive Correlational Study-Explains the relationship between two or more
5.Descriptive Trace Study-Follows up the development of certain conditions or
particular sets of people.(following a progress or development)
6.Descriptive trends and Projection Study-Studies in line to marketing and business
proposal.(More on business)
7.Descriptive Documentary Study-Documents are reviewed by the analyst to assess a
-Most prestigious and sophisticated method because it is costly.
-Observes the cause and effect of variables
-There’s always hypothesis involve.
1.Pre experimental Research-A group or various group are kept under observation
after implementing factors of cause and effect.
types of Pre Experimental:
One shot Case Study-A single group of test units is exposed to an experimental
treatment and a single measurement is taken afterwards.
(postest results only)(Independent Variable can be manipulated & Dependent
Variable is the results)
One group Pre test Post test-It is most often utilized by behavioral
(Testing behavior before the manipulation)(2 Dependent Variable)
Static Group Comparison-Two groups are of which receives the treatment
and the other does not.A posttest score is then determined the measure the
difference between the group.
True Control Group Pre test-Post test- There is one group but they’re divided
depending the intervention they’re given(also used in quantitative)
Identifying the Inquiry and Stating the Problem
Research requires an individual to read
Sources of Questioning:
Blueprint of Research Procedure:
Working title with Variables
Objectives or statement of the problem
Conceptual framework
Related literature or theories
Things to Consider in choosing Literature:
1.Year of Publication-should be at least published ten years before the current year.
2.Generate Blank Spot-Showcases a”blank spot” wherein the literature available in
your research topic is”limited”that enables you to generate new idea.
3.Types of Literature-conceptual literature (Books,journal,newspaper etc)and
research literature (Thesis,dissertation,term paper,etc)
Components of Chapter 1
1.Introduction-Is a careful presentation of the importance of the problem,follows the
TIOC pattern.
Trends-Highlight the trends in the field.Updated info,or the popular topic in the field.
Issue-Pinpoint the issues underlying the trends.
Objective-State the overall objective/intent of the paper in the light of the identified
Contribution-Discuss the possible contribution of the research attempt to advancing
or improving disciplinal theory,research,practice or policy.
2.Statement of the Problem-Used in research work as a claim that outlines the
problem addressed by a study.The statement of the problem briefly
addresses the question:What is the problem that the research will address?
3.Variable-ideas put up together to find their connection.
independent-manipulated variable
dependent-can be change
Instrument Validity and Reliability
Research Instrument & Data Gathering Procedure
Research Instrument
Types of form or questionnaire:
Self made-Will require pilot testing for ensuring the validity and reliability.
Standardized-Existing forms/questionnaires from other researches.
Modified-Derived from standardized form and questionnaires with incorporated
content from own research.
Validity-Refers to the degrees to which an instrument accurately measures what it
Reliability-Refers to the degree to which an instrument yields consistent
results.Common measures of reliability include internal,consistency
test retest and inter rater reliabilities.
Data Gathering Procedure-Explain the details entailed in data gathering,From how
you intend to contact the subjects to how the method.
Interview-Is generally a qualitative research technique which involves asking open
ended questions to converse with respondents and collect elicit data about a subject.
1.Structured-Close ended questions are specifically constructed and asked
in the same words through all the respondents.
-Questions are well constructed before data collection exercise
2.Semi structured-Open ended also structured however,there is the opportunity
to probe for details during questions administration (follow up questions)
-Questions can be restructured to suit the interviewee
and pursue unexpected trend of thoughts.
3.Unstructured-Informal conversation with no systematic format to follow but there
is a predetermined theme or topic.
Questions are relevant-The interview ques you ask must be relevant ti the topic
u are researching and research questions u are seeking to ans.
Questions are open ended-Effective
Question must be clear
Questions are applicable
Questions are unbiased-Good questions avoid making any judgemental assumptions
about the subj of research or of the respondent.
Tip for conducting an online interview:
Use online platforms that have recording feature.
Presentation of Data Through Encoded Interview
Interview transcripts are among the best qualitative analysis resources available but u
need the right methods to use them successfully.
Inductive Analysis-Is a qualitative method of content analysis that researchers use to
develop theory and identify themes by studying document, recordings and other
printed and verbal material.
Thematic Content Analysis-begins with identifying
Steps in Thematic Analysis:
1.Read through the data
2.Use codes
3.Merge codes
4.Merge Categories
Deductive Analysis-requires a structured or predetermined approach.In this case,the
researcher will build categories in advance of his or her analysis.Then,they’ll map
connections in the data to those specific categories.
-Have existing framework
Analyzing the meaning of data and Drawing Conclusions
Summary of Findings,Conclusions,and Recommendation
Chapter 5
Paragraph-Should be a brief statement about the main purpose of the study,the
population or respondents, the period of the study,method of research used,
the research instrument,and the sampling design.
Finding-An empirical fact,based on data collected or interpretation of the data.
Summary of Findings-Demands that each specific question under the statement of
the prob must be written first to be followed by the findings that would ans it.
Conclusion-Synthesizes and interprets the finding and makes a reasoned judgment
that corresponds to the finding.Ans the questions in the statement of the prob.
The Art of Citing,Quoting and Summarizing
Plagiarism-The act of using another person’s words or without giving credit to that
person.(Rep Act no.8293)
Types of Plagiarism:
1.Word for word-Exact words we commonly brand it as copied and paste work.
-word substitution or word alterations.
2.Paraphrasing-The changes are just just a matter of word substitution or alteration.
3.Mosaic-Patching or mixing many author’s ideas.
4.Source-Citing the wrong source.
Citing-The act of referring to the author whose ideas appear in your work.
It usually entails the addition of the author and the date of the publication or similar
Rule 1:If you’re quoting exact words Introduce the quote with an in text citation in
parentheses.(Integral in the beginning of middle/non integral at the end of paragraph)
Rule 2:If you’re directly quoting more than 40 words,use a block quote.
(If 40 below use quotation)
Rule 3:Citation with one author:You only need the author’s last name and the year
Rule 4:Citation with 2 author:Connect both authors’ last name with ‘&’ and include
the year.
Rule 5:Citation with three or more authors use “”
Rule 6:Group authors:First with an abbreviation.
Quoting-Is done if the author’s words convey a powerful meaning that you cannot
possibly say the info any better.
-Is also preferable if you want to introduce an
author’s position that you want to discuss.
Procedures in Quoting:
1.Introduce-By stating the author’s last name,any necessary background info and
signal verb.
2.Cite-Place every quotation between quotation marks and copy the text word for
word,including the text’s original punctuation and capital letters.
3.Explain-Make sure to explain your quotations and not just purely copying it.Provide
an explanation or insight as to why this quotation is important,or comment on the
importance of the quotation.
Paraphrasing-The act of paraphrasing is done to avoid overdoing quoting.
-If you want to restate an author’s idea into your own words but keeps the original
meaning of the text.
Procedures in Paraphrasing:
1.Read the text carefully.Be sure you absorb the
text fully.
2.Put the original text aside and write your
paraphrase in your own words.
3.Does it reflect the original text but is in
your own words and style?Did you include all
the main points and essential info.
4.Include an in text citation in the expected
formatting style.
Summarizing-Is a shortened version of a larger reading.
-When only the main ideas of a source are relevant to your paper and when the
details in a text might distract,overwhelm,or confuse readers.
Procedures in Summarizing:
1.Start by reading the text and highlighting main points as you read.
2.Read the text and make notes of the main points,leaving out examples,evidence etc.
3.Without the text,rewrite your notes in your own words.
4.Restate the main idea at the beginning of your summary plus all major points.
5.Include the conclusion or the final finding of the work.
6.You can use transitional devices,these are words or phrases that help carry a
thought from one sentence to another,from one idea to another
or from one paragraph to another.

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat