Principles of assessment for young children edited

Principles of Assessment for Young Children
Principles of assessments for young children are evaluations used in determining if
children can comprehend what they learn, read, say and write. These evaluations help specialists
understand the child’s progress and ability to learn, including interventions that can be
undertaken if the child cannot do formal learning. Additionally, assessing babies and toddlers
creates more connections with them, enabling close follow-up of their development.
Components of an Effective Assessment System for Infants and Toddlers
Assessment systems undertaken on children and toddlers contain components and
techniques which facilitate understanding a child’s strengths and weaknesses. These components
include rating scales, normal references examinations, observations, portfolios, and checklists.
They incorporate different tools such as representative work from the child, progress reports, and
observation logs. Importantly, an effective assessment should consider different backgrounds,
learning styles, and varying learning speeds for children. In addition, these assessments are
meant to make the child feel better about them and encourage them to improve, rather than
viewing themselves as failures.
Effectiveness of an Assessment Procedure
Effective assessment should be based on activities that occur during natural activities
rather than on skill testing. Some of the major tests used with infants and young children include
the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, Bayley Scale of Infant Development, and Peabody Picture
Vocabulary Test. These tests are used to effectively measure the various aspects of development,
including language, motor skills, and cognitive ability, and they are effectively administered by
trained personnel such as pediatricians and psychologists.
Test Validity and Test Reliability
Test validity represents the extent to which the applied assessment measures the factors
expected to measure, while test reliability is the degree to which the measurement produces
consistent results. Reliability is affected by the heterogeneity of the test group, time, objectivity,
and length of the test. The validity of a test is affected by the contents of the test, nature, criterion
of administration, administration, scoring, and the children’s response.
Norm-referenced and Criterion-referenced Tests
Criterion-referenced tests measure the performance of each infant and compare their
knowledge and skills against a predetermined standard. Their final score is not affected by the
score of other children. In contrast, a norm-referenced test measures a child’s skills and compares
them to the skills and knowledge of the group. Norm-referenced does not indicate whether the
child met or exceeded a specific standard or criteria.
Interpreting Standardized Test Results
Standardized tests are carried out among a large number of children or infants.
Standardized tests enable the performance to be benchmarked against the group’s average.
Interpreting the standardized test results is done using both norm-referenced and criterionreferenced interpretation. A norm-referenced interpretation means that the scores convey
meaning regarding the child according to their standing among other examiners. Criterionreferenced interpretation located the standing and performance of the child based on the preset

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