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As Sartre claimed, one of the key propositions of existentialism is that existence precedes essence, which is to
say that persons develop themselves by their existence and cannot be understood via predefined and a-priori
categories, which he termed “essence.” The real existence of a person is what forms what may be referred to as
their “genuine essence,” as opposed to an arbitrarily given essence that others use to describe that individual.
Creating their own values and determining a purpose for their lives is something that only human beings can do
since they have awareness. [24] These views are diametrically opposed to those held by Aristotle and Aquinas,
who believed that essence preceded individual existence. [a reference is required] The existentialist thinkers
Heidegger and Kierkegaard were among many who expressed similar ideas, despite the fact that Sartre was the
one who first used the word.
He communicates in a certain manner, which is the shape taken by the subjective thinker. His physical
appearance must be as diverse as the many elements that he keeps together. Whenever the abstract system of
ones, twos and threes is applied to the concrete, it almost always results in a snag. In the same way that the
subjective thinker is concrete, his form must be concretely dialectical in the same way that he is concretely
concrete. Nevertheless, just as he himself is neither a poet, an ethicist, or a dialectician, his form is likewise not
any of these things in the traditional sense. His shape must be tied to life first and foremost, and in this sense, he
must have at his disposal the poetic, the ethical, the dialectical, and the religious modes of expression. Aesthetic
production’s breadth is defined by its subordinate character, context, and so on; the subjective thinker has only
one setting—existence—and has nothing to do with places and things like that. No, the location is neither a
fairyland of the mind, where poetry brings about conclusion, nor is it situated in England, and historical
accuracy is not a priority. The setting is the inwardness that comes with being a human being; the concretion is
the relationship between the existence-categories that are connected to one another. The difference between
historical accuracy and historical reality is breadth.
The duty to identify oneself has been interpreted by some as implying that everybody may aspire to be whatever
they choose. An existentialist philosopher, on the other hand, might argue that such a yearning represents an
inauthentic life – what Sartre would refer to as “bad faith.” As an alternative, the statement should be interpreted
as meaning that persons are defined entirely in terms of their activities and that they are accountable for their
actions. Someone who behaves brutally towards other people is classified as a cruel person as a result of their
actions. In such cases, the individuals are solely accountable for their new identities (cruel persons). This is in
contrast to the idea that their genes or human nature are to fault.
Existentialism is a Humanism, according to Sartre’s lecture Existentialism is a Humanism: “Man first existing,
then experiences himself, then surges up in the world—and defines himself afterwards.” It is also emphasized
that there is a more positive, therapeutic element to this: a person may choose to behave in a different manner,
and to be a decent person instead of being cruel. In contrast to Sartre’s use of the word essence in a modal sense,
in which it refers to required characteristics, Jonathan Webber understands it as follows: “an essence is the
relational trait of having a collection of elements organized in such a manner that they may collectively do some
activity.” For example, it is essential to the function of a home that it be able to keep out the bad weather, which
is why it has walls and a roof. In contrast to buildings, humans do not have an innate purpose since, unlike
houses, they are free to select their own purpose and so create their essence; as a result, their existence comes
before their essence. Sartre is devoted to a radical idea of freedom: nothing other than ourselves determines our
purpose, and our initiatives have no weight or inertia until and until we formally approve and support them.
Simone de Beauvoir, on the other hand, believes that there are a variety of elements, which she refers to as
“sedimentation,” that function as a barrier to efforts to alter our course through life. Sedimentations are itself the
result of previous decisions, and they may be altered by making alternative choices in the present, although such
changes take time to take effect. Their influence on the agent’s evaluative worldview continues to be felt until
the shift is complete. They are a force of inertia. Sartre’s formulation of existentialism was founded on
Heidegger’s magnum work Being and Time, which is considered to be the foundation of the movement (1927).
Heidegger implied in his correspondence with Jean Beaufret, which was later published as the Letter on
Humanism, that Sartre misunderstood him in order to further his own goals of subjectivism, and that he did not
mean that actions take precedence over being so long as those actions were not reflected upon. [29] According
to Heidegger, “the reversal of a metaphysics assertion remains a metaphysical statement,” implying that Sartre
had merely flipped the roles conventionally given to essence and existence without probing these notions and
their historical development.

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