Social sciences

refer to the “group-shared expectations” (Young & Mack)
“Social norms are rules developed by a group of people that specify how people
must, should, may, should not and must not behave in various situations”
(Leshe, Larson & Georman)
Forming a line at store counters, saying ‘bless you’ when someone sneezes, or
holding the door to let someone enter your building after themselves because it
is polite. Social norms theory is a diverse field.
According to Young & Mack “Norms refer to the group-shaped expectations”.
Folkways: Sumner: are not creation of human purpose and wills. They are
products of natural forces which men unconsciously set in operation.
Customers that are socially approved standards of behavior but not the standards
of morality. Example: Belching during formal dinner and eating, drinking and
type of dressing.
Mores: Norms that are the standards or morality that a society sets for
individuals. Example: Drugs, Smoking. Types of mores positive (represents
do’s) and negative (don’t)
Mores are relatively wider and more general in character than the folkways
Laws: Formal rules and regulations that are enforced by state. Violation of these
laws result in punishment. Example: Robbery
H.M Johnson: value are general standers and may be regarded as general
An ideal or principle that determines what is correct, desirable, or morally proper.
Honesty, Kindness, Loyalty, Integrity are some example of values.
types of values;
Social Values.
Those practices which are performed by an individual in his daily life routine are
known as Social Value.
Example: Technical Knowledge, Computer literacy, House, Car etc are some
example of social values.
Cultural values
are a series of principles and values passed on generation after generation by our
ancestors. Cultural values are the core principles and ideals upon which an
entire community exists. Cultural values provide patterns of living and
prescribe rules and models for attitude and conduct. The examples of it are
morals, rules, values, languages, beliefs, social roles, traditions and many more.
Difference between value and norm: Values are important beliefs or ideals of a
person in a community, serving as a motivation for action. Norms are actionguiding rules. The difference between a value and a norm is that a value is
general, referring to an overall ideal, whereas a norm is concrete, specifying
certain things that have to be done (or omitted). Values can be operationalized
in specifying norms; norms refer to and are justified by underlying values.
Characteristics of Social Norms
Social norms are universal.
Related to the factual order.
Incorporate rate value judgments.
These are relative to situations and groups.
Not always obeyed by all.
Norms vary with sanctions.
Normally internalized by the people.
According to Linton: The culture is social heredity which is transmitted from one
generation to another with the accumulation of individual experiences
Culture comes from the Latin word “colere”, meaning to build on, to cultivate, to
Functions of culture
Culture defines situation
Culture is the treasury of knowledge
Culture provides behavior patterns
Culture defines attitudes, values and goals
Culture models personality
Culture decides our career
Characteristics of culture:
i. Culture is learnt
ii. Culture is social
iii. Culture is continuous and cumulative
iv. Culture is dynamic and adaptive
Types of Culture:
Material culture
Consist of things that are created by humans and it is tangible things means we
can touch these things.
Examples including car, building, clothing and tool.
Non-material culture
Refers to the abstract ideas and ways of thinking that make up a culture. It is also
created by human.
Examples of nonmaterial culture include traffic laws, customs, norms, beliefs and
Real culture
Refers to practices and norms a culture actually follows.
For example, no perfect education system, poverty and breaking traffic laws.
Ideal culture
Refer to the values, norms, and beliefs that a society desires to achieve. It
consists of those ideals that people would like to attain as a society.
For example, perfect education system, no poverty, no murdered follows rules
and regulation etc.
Components of culture:
language and symbols,
norms and values
Culture differences:
The existence of a variety of cultural or ethnic groups within a society
culture difference is the quality of different culture in the society
language and religion are the example of culture different
Cultural universality:
All human has their respective culture. Among the societies there are some
common traits which have their biological, geographical, and social
background. As family life, marriages, education and economic system.
It is about the process of judging another culture by the standards of one’s own
Cultural Relativism:
It’s the process of judging a culture by its own standards.
Xenon centrism:
It’s about the process of juggling own cultural by the standards of other culture.
Cultural lag
Ogburn said: material aspects of culture changes rapidly than the nonmaterial
Civilization: is derived from the Latin word ‘civitas’ which means a city.
Cultural integration
Close relationships among various elements of society. As material and nonmaterial culture
Social stratification
According to Melvin M Tumin:
“Social stratification refers to “arrangement of any social group or society into
hierarchy of positions that are unequal with regard to power, property, social
evaluation and psychic gratification”.
Determinants of Social Stratification
Economic Resources
The level of income from all resources is an important indicator of based
on wealth, the net value of money and assets a person has, and income, a
person’s wages or investment dividends. While people are regularly categorized
based on how rich or poor they are, other important factors influence social
i.e. Division of society into upper, middle or lower class.
Occupation is an important indicator of stratification in every society often
corresponds with income and educational attainment, which combined
determine a person’s social class. However, occupations with high occupational
prestige can increase one’s social class without a corresponding increase in
indicators, such as income.
Prestige refers to the reputation or esteem associated with one’s position in
society. A person can earn prestige by his or her own achievements, which is
known as achieved status, or they can be placed in the stratification system by
their inherited position, which is called ascribed status.
Sociologists examine government and politics in terms of their impact on
individuals and larger social systems. Power is an entity or individual’s ability
to control or direct others, while authority is influence that is predicated on
perceived legitimacy.
Caste is acquired by birth that determine their way of life, opportunities,
and social customs. Caste imposes many restrictions on its members. These are
elite families with great wealth who dominate the economic system of every
The Standard of education also determines a social class. Access to education
and to educational attainments is a function of social class, economic status,
gender, disability, personal preferences, education ‘quality’, teachers, pedagogy,
peer relations, etc. schools will attract wealthier students and better teachers.
A social class is made up of people of similar social status who regard one
another as social equals. Each class has a set of values, attitudes, beliefs and
behaviors norms which differ from those of the other classes.
Karl Marx defined as
“A group of people having more or less equal economic resources and indicating
similar standard of living in a society”.
Max Weber
Aggregate of people how have the same opportunities of according goods and
same exhibited standers of living.
Characteristics of class
A status group: A social class is essentially a status group.
Achieved status based: Social class is determined on the basis of achieved
status not an ascribed status. But in Pakistan, it is also determined on the basis
of status.
Class system is universal: it is a universal phenomenon and present in all
societies of the world.
Social class is an open group: It contains open social system in which vertical
social mobility is possible
Feeling of “class consciousness”: In social class, members are aware and
shared feeling of belonging from same class.
Karl Marx gave two class theory.
Types of class
Upper class
Upper Upper class, Upper middle class, Upper lower class
Middle class
Middle upper class, Middle Middle class, Middle lower class
Lower class
Lower upper class, Lower middle class, Lower Lower class
is a system of stratification in which mobility up and down the status ladder, at
least ideally may not occur (A.W.Green)
Characteristics of Caste
Caste as a hierarchical division of society. In caste system, groups are divided
in a hierarchical position on the basis of caste
Close group: caste is a close group and members can’t change their caste.
Sub-culture: Every caste has its own sub culture in which certain things are
prescribed and mandatory to follow for members. On the other hand, some
things are prohibited to do for members.
Social Control: Caste has its own informal method of social control.
Difference between Class and Caste
• Class is flexible and the caste is rigid and permanent.
• Class is changing and the caste never changes.
• Class forms no Biradri while caste makes Biradri.
• Class is not exogamous while caste is endogamous.
• Membership in a class is informal unknown to its members, the membership in
caste is ascribed at birth and known to its members that we belong to such a
• Class favours social change and progress while caste opposes social change but
favours only the progress which is not against its norms.
Definition; Horton and hunt: social mobility may be dedicated as act of moving
from one social class to another
several types of social mobility:
1. Horizontal social mobility:
Horizontal mobility one of the types of mobility, is the straight change from left
to right or right to left. In horizontal mobility to place is changed but the social
position of an individual remains on the same level. For example; when a
lecture is transferred from one government college to another with the same
grade or pay scale and as a teacher is horizontal mobility.
2. Vertical social mobility
Upward mobility
Downward mobility
Vertical mobility refers to the change in status of an individual as moves up or
down the social ladder. For example, the manager of the meat department who
is promoted to general manager of the supermarket has achieved upward
vertical mobility. The promotion is accompanied by an increase in income and
overall responsibility. On the other hand, the major league, baseball player who
is sent back to the minor leagues has suffered downward vertical mobility
3. Intergenerational mobility
Intergenerational mobility refers to social mobility that takes place between
generations. When the daughter of a taxicab driver earns a college education
and goes on to become a successful medical doctor, intergenerational mobility
has occurred. Downward intergenerational mobility may take place as in the
case of a taxicab driver whose father is a physician
4. Intra-generational mobility
Intra-generational mobility refers to a change or changes in the social status of an
individual or group of individuals within the same generation. For example,
suppose that five children are born into one family of rather moderate means.
After high school, four of the children enter the job market at medium-low
levels, while the fifth child works part-time while attending college. After
college graduation, the fifth child enters a major corporation at a rather high
level, and after three years, the one is promoted to a top managerial position.
While he/she has attained upward vertical mobility, his/her brothers and sisters
have remained at the same socioeconomic level.
The following are the factors which bring about social mobility:
• Dissatisfaction from Previous Condition
• Adoption of new Conditions
• Industrial and Technological Development
• Education
• Urbanization
• Means of Communication and Transportation
Social Groups
Merrill: “Two or more persons are in communication over an appreciable period
of time and who act in accordance with common function and purpose”.
Importance of Social Group.
▪ Sense of Belonging
▪ Family and Friendship
▪ Communication in Social groups
▪ Support and Society
▪ Groups contribute to the development of personality
Primary Group:
▪ C.H Cooley Introduce the Primary Group
▪ Primary groups are small and characterized by close, personal, and intimate
relationships that last a long time, maybe a lifetime. These relationships are
deeply personal and loaded with emotion.
The members typically include family, close friends etc.
Relationships in primary groups are made up of love, caring, concern, loyalty,
and support.
▪ Characteristics of Primary Group
1. Face-to-face interaction: Primary groups are characterized by close intimate
and face to face interaction.
2. Intimacy: Here everyone knows everyone else and there is strong intimacy
among the members. They are even known to nick names of their members.
3. Mutual Aid & Help: Mutual aid assistance among the members of the groups
always found. They cooperate with each other at the time of help.
4. Consciousness of kind: Consciousness of kind exists. If means they
recognize one another and express it whenever needed.
5. We – Feeling: we – feeling (sense of unity and commonality) is found among
the members of the group. It means they live together as one body.
6. Small in Size: Primary groups are smaller in size. Large number decreases
intimacy and loose the bond of the group.
Characteristics of Secondary Group
1. Large in size: Its members are relatively larger in size than the primary one.
They can be thousands and millions of members.
2. Less physical proximity: their physical proximity is rarely found and most of
the members reside quite way from each other.
3. Impersonal or secondary relation: Its basic elements are indirect,
impersonal contractual as well as non-inclusive relations. Usually, they come
close to each other for achieving common interests.
4. Membership: Membership in this case is mainly voluntary. Individuals are
free to join or avoid it. There is no emotional bondage on the members.
5. Reference Group
1- “Groups are serves as a point of comparison are known as reference groups”
_Ogburn & Nimkoff
“A reference group is any group to which we refer when making judgments – any
group whose value and judgments become our value and judgment”
Examples: Normative reference groups include your parents, siblings, teachers,
peers, associates and friends. A comparative reference group is a group of
individuals whom you compare yourself against and may strive to be like.
Examples include celebrities and heroes.
▪ Formal Group:
Any group that is deliberately formed by its members or an external authority
for some purpose. Unlike an accidental group, a formal group is likely to use
explicit terms to define its membership criteria, operating procedures, role
structure, and goals. Also called planned group.
▪ Examples: Students in class are formal group. United Nations Organization
(U.N.O) , A youth Club in a town are also formal groups.
Informal Group
Informal is that group in which membership is not defined. Anyone can join
such group and leave it when he wants.
The Informal groups are those groups that get created spontaneously as soon as
individuals start interacting with each other.
Examples: People in Bazars and fairs, People gossiping in mohalla and Children
playing in Streets are all informal groups.
▪ In-Group and Out-Group [defined in 1906 by U.S. sociologist William G.
▪ In Group
▪ Any group to which one belongs or with which one identifies.
▪ Feeling strong identification and loyalty with the members of their own groups.
▪ The groups in which individual identifies himself are his In-group
A group or category to which people feel they do not belong.
▪ They feelings Opposite to In-group
▪ Feeling of Competition
Examples: They are Indians
▪ A group of people working together for specific purpose or to make surplus.
▪ It is also congenial group and formally organized.
▪ It is not multi-purpose but formed for specific aim hence called special interest
▪ Formal Organization
▪ Formal organizations represent those organizations which are characterized by
a specific function, division of labor, a hierarchy of authority, rationality and
proper arrangements of status and roles.
▪ These kind of organizations are carefully planned and systematically perform
▪ Examples: These includes Banks, universities, Colleges, business corporations
and trade unions etc.
Characteristics of Formal Organization
▪ Specific Functions
▪ Norms and Codes
▪ Social statuses and Division of labor
▪ Authority
▪ Bureaucracy
▪ Rationality
▪ Relative Permanence
According to H.T. Majumdar
“Socialization as the process whereby original nature is transformed into human
nature and the individual into person”.
A.W. Green opines:
“Socialization is the process by which the child acquires a cultural content,
along with selfhood and personality”.
1: Primary socialization
This type of socialization happens when a child learns the values, norms and
behaviors that should be displayed in order to live accordingly to a specific
Example: A child hears his father talk bad words against an old lady. The child
would think that this behavior is socially acceptable, so he would start talking
bad words against older people.
2: Secondary socialization
This type of socialization occurs when a person learns an appropriate behavior
to be displayed within a smaller group which is still part of a larger society. The
changes within the values, attitudes and beliefs of an individual are seen to be
less important than the changes made in him as he participates in the larger
Example: A high school graduate chooses a career in Business Management
after participating in a small group career seminar led by college business
3: Developmental socialization
This type of socialization involves a learning process wherein the focus in on
developing our social skills.
Example: A shy senior high school student starts to teach English to new
freshmen students in order to develop verbal communication.
4: Anticipatory socialization
This type of socialization refers to the process wherein a person practices or
rehearses for future social relationships.
Example: A child anticipates parenthood as he observes his parents perform their
daily roles.
Agencies of Socialization
• The family
• Peer Groups
• Mass Media and Technology
• Religion
Functions of Socialization
1. Socialization converts humans from biological being to social being.
2. It contributes in personality development.
3. It helps to become disciplined.
4. It helps to perform different roles.
5. It establishes knowledge and skills.
6. It contributes in the stability of social order.
7. It transmits culture from one generation to other.
8. It creates right aspirations in social life.
Horton and hunt: any failure to conform to contemporary norms is called
Differences between crime and deviance
Crime is the violation of laws set by the constitution and the government of the
country. While Deviance can simply be stated as the violation of the norms,
social rules and convictions.
Types of crime
 White color crime
Sutherland 1940: crime committed by people of high social position in the course
of high social position
 Corporate crime
Illegal actions of corporation or people acting on its behalf.
Causes of Deviance
 Broken Family and Improper Socialization
 Lack of Religious Education and Morality
 Rejection by Neighborhood
 Lack of Basic Facilities
 Parentless Child
 Mass Media
Social sanctions are the methods that we use to enforce social control. Think of
these like the rewards and punishments society uses to make sure people obey
our norms and laws.
• Formal Sanctions:
Formal sanctions are actions that are legalized and official in nature and enforced
by an authoritative force. Punishments and rewards from officials such as law
enforcement and academic settings are examples of formal sanctions. An
official trade embargo from one country against another country is a large scale
formal sanction. A traffic citation for speeding is an example of a minor formal
• Formal Positive sanctions:
These sanctions are rewards given for conforming to norms. A promotion at work
is a positive sanction for working hard. Negative sanctions are punishments for
violating norms. Formal sanctions, on the other hand, are ways to officially
recognize and enforce norm violations.
• Formal Negative sanctions:
Negative sanctions are punishments for violating norms. Being arrested is a
punishment for shoplifting. Both types of sanctions play a role in social control.
Sociologists also classify sanctions as formal or informal. … Formal sanctions,
on the other hand, are ways to officially recognize and enforce norm violations
Informal sanctions are rules or norms that are ‘unwritten’ and not enforced by an
official authority. Informal sanctions are not laws in a legal sense, but occur
regularly in society. A boycott against a business is a type of informal sanction.
Shaming, ridicule, and disapproving looks are informal sanctions used by
people against others in order to attempt to alter their behavior. Informal
sanctions are typically the result of individual dissatisfaction rather than societal
or institutional regulations.
• Positive informal sanctions:
Positive informal sanctions include standing ovations, compliments, smiles, pats
on the back, and gifts. -Negative informal sanctions include frowns, gossip,
rebukes, insults, ridicule, and ostracism—exclusion from a particular group.
• Informal negative sanctions:
Negative informal sanctions include frowns, gossip, rebukes, insults, ridicule, and
ostracism—exclusion from a particular group. Informal sanctions are
particularly effective among teenagers, who consider group acceptance to be
When economic activity that was formally local or national scale becomes
organized on a global scale that is called economic globalization
Examples: Trade exchange, Import and export, Production, capital
Political globalization
refers to the growth of worldwide political system, both in size and complexity in
which government action takes place at an international level
FOR EXAMPLE: European union, International monetary fund, United nations
Cultural globalization
The transmission of ideas meanings and values around the world in such a way as
to extend and intensify social relations
For example: The trading of goods such as coffee and avocados is said to be
originally from ethopia and consumed in Arabic region due to international trade
Technology globalization
can be defined as the increasing speed of technological diffusion across the
global economy
The spread of technologies around the globe and particularly from developed to
developing nation
For example: Mobile phones leads to competition lowered prices and concurrent
improvement in related areas such as
Mobile banking, Information sharing
Social change
Horton and Hunt defined it as change in overall societal structure and
relationship of a society.
Complete Change: when there is a total change it is called a complete change.
It is in status and practices
Partial Change: when the part of a system changes it is partial change. It is
either in status or practice
Revolutionary Change: it is a sudden change and is always visible for a short
Evolutionary Change: it is slow change and it exists permanently
Civilization Change: It refers to the dress, food habits, production
technologies, communication system etc.
Cultural Change: It is associated with new knowledge of religion, rituals, arts,
literature etc.
Factors of social change:
 Biological factor, Cultural factor, Technological factors, Geographic factors and
Demographic Change, Conflict and Change, Ideas and change
Final Topics
1-Define culture what are types of culture.
2-Difference between norms and value. Aspects and types of social norms.
3-Define socialization, types of socialization. What is self and how it develops.
4-Define social group explain types of social groups with examples
5-Define social stratification. what are determinants of social stratification
6-Define social mobility. What are types of social mobility and causes of social
mobility in the context of Pakistan.
7. Define social control and what are types of social control?
8. Differentiate between crime and deviance and what are causes of deviance?
9.what are characteristics of culture and what are factors helping and resisting
cultural change?
10.what is globalization and write the impacts of globalization

Calculate the price
Make an order in advance and get the best price
Pages (550 words)
*Price with a welcome 15% discount applied.
Pro tip: If you want to save more money and pay the lowest price, you need to set a more extended deadline.
We know how difficult it is to be a student these days. That's why our prices are one of the most affordable on the market, and there are no hidden fees.

Instead, we offer bonuses, discounts, and free services to make your experience outstanding.
How it works
Receive a 100% original paper that will pass Turnitin from a top essay writing service
step 1
Upload your instructions
Fill out the order form and provide paper details. You can even attach screenshots or add additional instructions later. If something is not clear or missing, the writer will contact you for clarification.
Pro service tips
How to get the most out of your experience with
One writer throughout the entire course
If you like the writer, you can hire them again. Just copy & paste their ID on the order form ("Preferred Writer's ID" field). This way, your vocabulary will be uniform, and the writer will be aware of your needs.
The same paper from different writers
You can order essay or any other work from two different writers to choose the best one or give another version to a friend. This can be done through the add-on "Same paper from another writer."
Copy of sources used by the writer
Our college essay writers work with ScienceDirect and other databases. They can send you articles or materials used in PDF or through screenshots. Just tick the "Copy of sources" field on the order form.
See why 20k+ students have chosen us as their sole writing assistance provider
Check out the latest reviews and opinions submitted by real customers worldwide and make an informed decision.
Customer reviews in total
Current satisfaction rate
3 pages
Average paper length
Customers referred by a friend
15% OFF your first order
Use a coupon FIRST15 and enjoy expert help with any task at the most affordable price.
Claim my 15% OFF Order in Chat