Theoretical framework

Theoretical Framework of Impacts of explicit TV advertisement
on children
Attribution Theory
Attribution theory is a social psychology theory that was developed by Fritz Heider, Harold
Kelly, Edward E. Jones and Lee Ross to predict individuals’ perceptions of social causality
(Mowen & Brown, 1981). This theory deals with the ways in which people explain or attribute
the behavior of others. The theory explores how individuals attribute causes to events and how
this cognitive perception affects their motivation. According to attribution theory (Kelly, 1973),
observers may infer causes of actions as due to either personal traits or circumstances. The
theory posits that the direction of these causal inferences differs on the basis of examination of
three types of information – distinctiveness, consistency (both temporal and modal) and social
consensus (Tripp, 1990). Mowen and Brown (1981) first suggested that “attribution theory can
be used to analyze factors affecting the effectiveness of product endorsers”(Tripp, 1990).
Uses and Dependency Model
Research has shown that dependency on a medium is the result of two major factors: viewer
motives for obtaining gratifications and the availability of viewing alternatives. Each of these
factors may be affected by any number of social or psychological characteristics. For example a
person with poor health and limited mobility would be more likely to be dependent upon a
medium such as television for entertainment and diversion than a healthy person who enjoys
many different activities. Further, a person with limited mobility would be more likely to become
dependent upon a medium such as television if he/she did not have access to other media options
such as personal computer, VCR, computer games, etc at his/her home.
The Uses and Dependency Model (Rubin, A. and Windahl, 1986) proposes that certain
elements in media system (e.g. system itself, structure of society and individual differences that
result in highly personal motives) cause people to use and depend upon media. Dependency upon
media may lead to effect in itself. For example, attitude change might occur and thus affect other
elements in the model. The greater the dependency upon a medium the greater the likelihood that
medium will have effects upon the viewer. M. M. Miller and S. D. Reese (1982) studied political
effects and found that these (effects) were more likely to occur among those who relied more
upon the medium rather than those who did not rely upon it. Finn, S. (1992) described the
motives for media use as falling under one of the two headings: proactive or passive. Examples
of proactive media use and watching a particular television program in order to learn more about
a specific subject of interest, watching a certain movie for the purpose of being entertained or
using internet for information for a project at school or work. In other words, media user actively
seeks something from media based upon his/her wishes, needs and motives. As the name
suggests, passive motives describe the us age of media in a lackadaisical (passive) sense. For
example, sometimes we turn on the television simply because it is there just to “see what’s on”.
We are not actively seeking information, entertainment or anything in particular. This does not
mean that we will not be entertained or learn something we very well might. It only suggests that
we did not begin the viewing experience with a particular proactive motive in mind (Finn, 1992).
Most recent activity in the area of Uses and Gratification Theory had examined the
motives behind the media usage. In other words, researchers have sought to find out why people
watch television programmes or why they are influenced by some commercials but not by others.
Instead, focusing on what media do to peoples, these studies question: what do people do with
media (Rubin, 1994).
K. E. Rosengren, and Windahl, S. (1972) were among the first to suggest that media uses
and effects should be linked. Research should ask what effects particular gratification may have
or what effects particular uses of media may have. They found that people depend upon the
media to fulfill certain needs such as vicarious experience and escapism or involvement or
interaction (Klapper, 1963).
Other researchers have also suggested that a synthesis of the two research realms would be
logical and beneficial. These research domains are similar in that each examines the
consequences of mass communication from an individual or societal level, changes in attitudes,
perception or behavior (Greenberg, 1974).
Since the mid-1970, research has provided greater understanding of the uses and effects of
mass media. In answer to criticisms regarding lack of uniformity, uses and effects researchers
have adopted similar measures for viewers’ motives. Based upon the work by B. S. Greenberg
(1974) and Rubin (1979), most uses and gratification research now recognizes the following
motives for media use among audience members: learning, habit, companionship, arousal,
relaxation, escapism or a way to pastime (Rubin, 1994).
Studies by Greenberg and Rubin produced similar results. Both found, for example, the
motives for viewing changed with person’s age. Most habitual viewers liked watching comedies
rather than news bulletins. Most viewers seeking excitement tended to watch action/adventure
Uses and Gratification
Utility Theory, often known as the “Uses and Gratifications Approach”, offers another
way of explaining why people expose themselves to some communications and not others (the
preferred channels/programmes);why they perceive a fraction of these to which they are exposed
and why they remember –correctly or incorrectly– only some of these (effects on lingo).
Blumler and Katz’s Uses and Gratification Theory suggest that media users play an active role in
choosing and using media. Users take an active part in the communication process and are goaloriented in their media usage. Theorists say that media users seek out source that best fulfills
their needs. Uses and Gratifications Theory assumes that users have alternate choices to satisfy
their needs (Griffin, 2000).
Focus of this theory is that viewers attend, perceive and remember information that is
pleasurable or that will in some way help satisfy their needs. Therefore, this research probed into
which cable television channels and programmes are preferred by the targeted audience and
which of their needs are satisfied by viewing them. The idea of this study was to look for reasons
for the evident appeal of media and various types of contents by asking the audience what they
think, feel and appreciate on the basis of their personal media usage. The approach was described
by Klapper (1960) as a “functional orientation” which could account for the appeal of “escapist”
media content. He named simple functions of media as providing relaxation, stimulating the
imagination, providing vicarious interactions and providing a common ground for social
intercourse. Variation in motives for attending to media was also studied as variables in effect
research (Bulmer and McQuail, 1968).
Uses and Gratifications Theory takes a more humanistic approach to looking at the media
usage. Blumler and Katz believe that there is not merely one way that the populace uses media.
Instead, they believe there are as many reasons for using media as there are media users.
According to the theory, media consumers have a free will to decide how they will use the media
and how it will affect them. Blumler and Katz believe that media consumers can choose the
influence media has on them as well as the idea that users choose media alternatives merely as a
mean. Uses and Gratifications Theory is the optimist’s view of media.
Television advertisement
A commercial advertisement on television (usually abbreviated to TV commercial, ad, ad-film,
and known in UK as advert, or TV Advert) is a span of television programming produced and
paid for by an organization, which conveys a message, typically to market a product or service.
An obscenity is any statement or act which strongly offends the prevalent morality of the time. It
is derived from the Latin obscaena (offstage) a cognate of the Ancient Greek root skene, because
some potentially offensive content, such as murder or sex, was depicted offstage in classical
drama. The word can be used to indicate a strong moral repugnance, in expressions such as
“obscene profits” or “the obscenity of war”.
Using Habit
Frequency of watching TV ads is major variable and it is conceptualized how often they watch
TV ads
Time spending
Another dimension of the same concept is time spending which is conceptualized that how much
time they spend on watching TV ads
Interest Level
It is also conceptualized that how much interest users take while watching TV ads
Level of Liking
This concept is conceptualized that what is the level of liking of TV ads
Satisfaction with content
This variable is conceptualized that how much the users satisfy with the content of TV ads
Nudity or nakedness is the state of wearing no clothing.[1] The wearing of clothing is exclusively
a human characteristic.
Modesty is a mode of dress and deportment intended not to encourage sexual attraction in others;
actual standards vary widely. In this use, it can be considered inappropriate or immodest to
reveal certain parts of the body.
Eroticism (from the Greek ἔρως, eros—”desire”) is generally understood to refer to a state of
sexual arousal or anticipation of such – an insistent sexual impulse, desire, or pattern of thoughts,
as well as a philosophical contemplation concerning the aesthetics of sexual desire,
sensuality and romantic love.
Adultism has been defined as “the power adults have over children”. More narrowly, ‘adultism is
prejudice and accompanying systematic discrimination against young people’.
Biologically, a child (plural: children) is a human between the stages of birth and puberty. Some
biological definitions of a child include the fetus, as being an unborn child. The legal definition
of “child” generally refers to a minor, otherwise known as a person younger than the age of
Influencing Sexual Attitudes
Young people also learn a great deal about sexual attitudes from the media and from advertising
in particular. Advertising’s approach to sex is pornographic; it reduces people to objects and
deemphasizes human contact and individuality.
Adolescence (from Latin: adolescere meaning “to grow up”) is a transitional stage of
physical and psychological human development generally occurring during the period from
puberty to legal adulthood (age of majority).
An act of subjecting or an instance of being subjected to an action or an influence
The more children exposed to adult TV advertisement the more their perception changes.
The more children exposed to adult TV advertisement the more their behavior changes.
The more children exposed to adult TV advertisement the more their daily activities changes.

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