Unit iv disaster management definition
Unit – IV – Disaster Management
Definition and Concept
Disaster management includes sum total of all activities, programmes and measureswhich can be
taken up before, during and after a disaster with the purpose of avoiding, reducing the impact or
recovering from its losses.
According to Kelly (1996),”Disaster management” can be defined as the range of activities
designed to maintain control over disaster and emergency situations and to provide a framework
for helping those who are at risk to avoid or recover from the impact of the disaster.
Disaster management means managing resources and various responsibilities to deal with all
humanitarian aspects of emergencies. This may include preparedness before disaster, response
and recovery i.e. rebuilding and supporting society. The purpose of this is to lessen the impact of
‘Disaster management can be defined as the organization and management of resources and
responsibilities for dealing with all humanitarian aspects of emergencies, in particular
preparedness, response and recovery in order to lessen the impact of disasters.
The various aspects of Disaster Management:
1. Disaster Prevention
4. Disaster Mitigation
2. Disaster Preparedness
3. Disaster Response
The aims of Disaster Management are to:
Reduce (avoid, if possible) the potential losses from hazards;
Assure prompt and appropriate assistance to victims when necessary;
Achieve rapid and durable recovery.
Importance and relevance of disaster management in the present environmental scenario
Over the past 20 years disasters have affected 4.4 billion people, caused $2 trillion of damage
and killed 1.3 million people. These losses have outstripped the total value of official
development assistance in the same period. Natural disasters disproportionately affect people
living in developing countries and the most vulnerable communities within those countries. Over
95 per cent of people killed by natural disasters are from developing countries (Extreme Weather
and Natural Disasters, 2012).
In developing countries, the incidence of natural disasters, the impact of climate changes and the
management of the natural environment strongly influence the rate of development progress
In the decade 1990-2000, an average of about 4344 people lost their lives and about 30 million
people were affected by disasters every year. The loss in terms of private, community and public
assets has been astronomical.
At the global level, there has been considerable concern over natural disasters. Even as s
scientific and material progress is made, the loss of lives and property due to disasters has not
decision. In fact, the human toll and economic losses have mounted.
It was in this background that the Nations General Assembly, in 1989, declared the decade 19902000 as the International Natural Disaster Reduction with the objective to reduce loss of lives
and property and restrict economic damage through concerted international action, especially in
India has been traditionally vulnerable to natural disasters on account of its unique geo-climatic
conditions. Floods, droughts, cyclones, earthquakes and landslides have been recurrent
About 60% of the landmass is prone to earthquakes of various intensities; over 40 million
hectares is prone to floods; about 8% of the total area is prone to cyclones and 68% of the area is
susceptible to drought.
Over the past couple of years, the Government of India has brought about a paradigm shift in
approach to disaster management. The new approach proceeds from the conviction that develop
cannot be sustainable unless disaster mitigation is built into the development process.
Another stone of the approach is that mitigation has to be multi-disciplinary spanning across all
sectors. The new policy also emanates from the belief that investments in mitigation are much
cost effective than expenditure on relief and rehabilitation.
Disaster management occupies an important place in this country’s policy framework as it is poor
and the under-privileged who are worst affected on account of calamities/disasters.
The steps being taken by the Government emanate from the approach outlined above. The app:
has been translated into a National Disaster Framework [a roadmap] covering institutional
mechanic; disaster prevention strategy, early warning system, disaster mitigation, preparedness
and response human resource development.
The expected inputs, areas of intervention and agencies to be in at the National, State and district
levels have been identified and listed in the roadmap. This road has been shared with all the State
Governments and Union Territory Administrations.
Ministries Departments of Government of India, and the State Governments/UT Administrations
have been to develop their respective roadmaps taking the national roadmap as a broad guideline.
There is, therefore: now a common strategy underpinning the action being taken by the entire
participating organisation’ stakeholders.
The approach is being put into effect through:
(a) Institutional changes
(b) Enunciation of policy
(c) Legal and techno-legal framework
(d) Mainstreaming Mitigation into Development process
(e) Funding mechanism
(f) Specific schemes addressing mitigation
(g) Preparedness measures
(h) Community participation and capacity building
In India, the role of emergency management falls to National Disaster Management of India, a
government agency subordinate to the Ministry of Home Affairs. In recent years, there has been
a shift in emphasis, from response and recovery to strategic risk management and reduction, and
from a government-centered approach to decentralized community participation.
Bilateral-Aid i.e. foreign and local, national funding is being used to deal with disasters
especially the post disaster phase