University of the assumption i purposive communication i communication in multicultural setting essay

Answer the following questions:
1. Define culture. Differentiate between material and nonmaterial culture.
Culture refers to the set of common attitudes, values, goals, language and practices/
way of life of a particular group of people. This is usually a unique marker of the identity of
a specific community. Culture has 2 classifications which are the material and non-material
culture. Material culture means a culture that is tangible. This is something that is given
significance by the people concerned with the culture. Common material culture includes
clothing, food, tools, and architecture as examples of material culture. On the other hand,
non-material culture is intangible. This includes creations and abstract ideas that are not
embodied in physical objects; exchanged through time by members of a culture are parts of
their nonmaterial culture. Examples of this are rules, roles, ethics, and beliefs
2. Explain/discuss the following terms and give specific example for each.
a. Culture specific
Culture-specific means the approach that gives a deep understanding of one
cultural context by having comprehensive and ample cultural knowledge.
Additionally, culture-specific concepts are those present only in certain countries or
places and are not practiced worldwide. The culturally-specific method to analyzing
cultural differences examines culture from the inside out, asking what is significant
or unique about that culture. This can have an impact on the content, design, and
delivery of the message that the sender will be imparting to his/her audience or
receiver. Being knowledgeable in culture-specifics can help in building a
harmonious relationship between the sender and receiver in a sense that no party
will be seen as rude and no party will be offended by some, be it intentional or
unintentional, mistakes. An example of a culture-specific concept is the cappuccino
and macchiato from Italy.
b. Culture general
Culture general includes such practices, beliefs, values, goals, language, and
way of life that is applicable to all nations, worldwide. This can all be called as
universal culture. This is also a method of researching intercultural communication
that focuses on universal cultural and communication characteristics.
c. Inter-cultural interaction
When people of various cultural groups participate in collaborative activity,
“intercultural interaction” refers to the behavior (including, but not limited to,
verbal and nonverbal communication).
3. Identify and explain Hofstede’s 6 cultural dimensions. Give examples to illustrate each
Hofstede’s 6 cultural dimensions include the following:
1. Power Distance Index (high versus low).
This refers to the degree of inequality that exists – and is accepted – between people
with and without power. A high PDI score indicates that a society accepts an unequal,
hierarchical distribution of power, and that people understand “their place” in the system. A
low PDI score means that power is shared and is widely dispersed, and that society
members do not accept situations where power is distributed unequally.
An example of this is with regards to a leader and subordinates. A low PDI will mean
the subordinates are heard for their opinions and they have direct contributions to the
decision making whereas in high PDI, the leader is the sole decision-maker and the
subordinates are only to follow and are not supposed to question anything.
2. Individualism Versus Collectivism.
This refers to the strength of people’s bonds with one another in their community. A
high IDV score implies a lack of interpersonal connection among those who are not
members of a core “family,” and people assume less responsibility for the actions and
outcomes of others in this situation. People in a collectivist society, on the other hand, are
expected to be loyal to the group to which they belong, and the group will defend their
interests in return. The group is usually larger, and everyone is responsible for each other’s
For example, workers in an individualist society, are more inclined to prioritize
their own well-being over the group’s welfare. On the other hand, in a collectivist culture,
people may be willing to sacrifice their own comfort for the greater good of all.
3. Masculinity Versus Femininity.
This refers to the gender roles that men and women play. Men and women’s duties
overlap less in masculine society, and men are expected to be forceful. Demonstrating your
achievement, as well as being strong and quick, are considered excellent qualities. However,
there is a lot of overlap between male and female duties in feminine societies, and modesty
is seen as a virtue. Working with colleagues who cooperate well with one another or having
good relationships with your direct supervisors is given more weight.
For example, in a masculine culture, the males in a society are the breadwinners and
they make most if not all the decisions in a family. On the other hand, in feminine culture,
women’s and men’s roles can overlap with each other where both genders can work and
decide for the family.
4. Uncertainty Avoidance Index (high versus low).
This dimension describes people’s ability to deal with anxiety. People in societies
where Uncertainty Avoidance is prevalent try to make life as predictable and controlled as
possible. They may be tempted to give up if they discover that they are unable to govern
their own lives. For us Filipinos, this can refer to our “bahala na” culture which means we
leave our worries to our “Bathala”. People in countries with a low UAI score are more
easygoing, open, and inclusive.
An example of this is between countries, those that have high UAI scores are more
structured and are not for uncertain situations which is the reason for their “hectic” lifestyle
whereas countries with low UAI scores are more laid-back and if pertaining to opening
businesses, the people of this culture are more ready to face risks. The lives of these people
are considered more “stress-free”.
5. Long- Versus Short-Term Orientation.
The original name for this dimension was “Pragmatic Versus Normative (PRA).” It
refers to the time horizon that people in a community have. Countries with a long-term
outlook are more realistic, humble, and frugal. People in short-term-oriented countries tend
to value principles, consistency, and truth more and are more religious and nationalistic.
An example of this is how Chinese people are long-termed oriented for they plan
beforehand and they maintain relationships with their business partners for a long period
of time. On the other hand, Australia is identified as short-term oriented since their
perspective values virtues associated with the past and present, such as respect for
tradition, maintaining one’s “face,” and meeting social obligations.
6. Indulgence Versus Restraint.
This dimension identifies the extent to which a society allows “relatively free
gratification of basic and natural human desires related to enjoying life and having fun,” as
represented by the “indulgence” point on the continuum, relative to a society that “controls
gratification of needs and regulates by means of strict social norms” (Hofstede 2011).
For example, societies with high indulgence may have their people engaged in a
luxurious lifestyle whereas this is less in societies with high restraint. Moreover, people
from indulgent countries may have more control over their lives and activities. In contrast,
people from restrained societies may have a sense of helplessness and less participation in
life activities.
4. Define or explain the following nonverbal forms of communication and give examples to
a. Proxemics
This refers to the study of the nature, degree, and impact of individuals’ natural
spatial separation (as in various social and interpersonal circumstances), as well as how
this separation is influenced by environmental and cultural factors. Proxemics can either
make or break a communication since this can be seen differently in each society.
For example, in Japanese culture, they do not kiss as a form of greeting, but instead,
they bow and they are to keep at least an arm-length distance for personal space. On the
other hand, in Western culture, kissing is a common form of greeting.
b. Kinesics
The study of how we employ bodily movement and face emotions is known as
kinesics. We deduce a lot of information from body language, facial emotions, and eye
contact. Many people assume they can readily deduce the meanings of others’ body
language and facial expressions.
For example, in the Japanese culture, people do not make eye contact when talking
to other people since this is considered disrespectful, instead, children in Japan are trained
to look towards the necks of others because this allows their eyes to remain in their
peripheral vision. On the other hand, most European countries value eye contact as a form
of respect and showing interest when talking.
c. Paralanguage
This is a dimension concerned with how the speaker uses his/her voice. This is used
to describe vocal qualities including pitch, volume, inflection, rate of speech, and rhythm. All
these elements provide an understanding of the person’s feelings and mood just by studying
his/her paralanguage. For example, if 2 persons communicating are shouting, with their
emotions being angry, this can imply that they are arguing over something. In contrast, if we
see 2 people talking sweetly, we can say that they may have an intimate relationship.
d. Haptics
This is the study of touch. Touch is the first type of nonverbal communication we
experience as humans and is vital to our development and health (Dolin & BoothButterfield; Wilson, et al., 1993). Positive touch, negative touch, playful touch, serious touch,
control touch, and so on are all examples of different types of touch. All of these different
types of nonverbal communicational touch are intended to convey a specific message.
For example, generally, handshakes are accepted as a form of greeting around the
world. However, in Arab countries, a handshake is considered obscene between 2 people of
different sexes.
e. Chronemics
Chronemics is the study of how people use time. Levine (1997) believes our use of
time communicates a variety of meanings to those around us. A very famous example of this
is how we, Filipinos, identify 2 types of time and these are the “American time” and “Filipino
time”. The American time is known as being present before the given time of meet up
whereas Filipino time means always being late. The US has a monochromic orientation of
time which means they value time preciously and that people are seen more positive if they
are punctual than those who are not. In contrast, the Philippines is one of the countries that
practice polychronic orientation of time which means we are not very particular with time
and that we do have “being on time” as a goal. Some cultures with this orientation are more
adaptable, believing that activities will begin when everyone is there and ready, rather than
on a set schedule dictated by a clock or calendar.
This dimension of nonverbal communication refers to the eye behavior of a person. This is a
subcategory of kinesics but this is particular to the eye movement, gaze, eye behavior, and
everything about the eyes that may be sending codes that the receiver needs to decode. An
example of this is how a person who is lying may look in different directions instead of
looking straight at the person he/she is talking to. This is the root of the common statement
“Look me in the eye and tell me the truth”.
g. Colorics
This is the study of how people use color to communicate. For example, colorics may
be used to convey the identity of a person through the color of his/her clothing. A very good
example and a very hot topic for this is regarding our incoming election and how candidates
use colors to identify themselves. 2 candidates are popularly known for this. In today’s time,
people who wear pink on caravans and on rallies are Pro-Leni while those who wear red are
h. Olfactic
Olfactics is the study of communication functions related to the sense of smell, such
as body odors, perfume use, and so on. These could be genetically determined and rely on a
more natural method of communication. Olfactics can give someone an impression of the
person he/she is talking to. For example, if the person you are conversing with smells like a
burger and you see her coming out of the burger shop with an apron, even without asking,
you can assume that he/she works there.
Gustoric communication is a type of nonverbal communication that comes from
cooking. Our sense of taste conveys information to the brain about the things we eat. When
our palates come into contact with food, it sends messages of pleasure or dissatisfaction.
Gustorics communication isn’t just about taste; it’s also about the visual perception of a dish
with the right eye appeal, colorful components, height, and ingredient balance. An example
of gustorics is if you are a regular customer in a local restaurant, you will know if the chef is
not in his usual condition, or if the chef is different from the way the food tastes.
Physical appearance
Physical appearance is the outside appearance of a person. This can be his/her
clothing, hairstyle, etc. Listeners utilize a speaker’s physical appearance as an indication to
the speaker’s authenticity, much as the appearance of a letter influences written words.
That is why for example, a saleslady selling a hair product to avoid frizzy hair who, herself
has frizzy hair, will have a hard time, if not, impossible to sell the product.
5. Give an example of each of the following uses of nonverbal forms of communication
a. Reinforcement
Sine reinforcements are those that boost someone’s confidence and ego, an example
of nonverbal communication can be through clapping or thumbs up.
b. Substitution
Substitution means a substitute for a verbal message. An example can be a person
having a bite of the tamarind candy and having a facial grimacing expression can
indicate that the candy is sour even without actually saying that it is sour.
c. Contradiction
Sending a nonverbal communication that contradicts what is being stated is known
as a contradiction. This can be done on purpose to confuse people. It might also
happen unconsciously when you’re lying. An example would be saying that you did
not eat the chocolate while there is the presence of chocolate in your teeth and
d. Accentuation
Accentuation is a technique for drawing emphasis to a certain element of a message.
When you put an accent on anything, you’re emphasizing it and making it stand out.
An example of this is increasing the volume of your voice in a certain word that you
wat to emphasize to your audience/receiver.
e. Regulation
Nonverbal communication can be used to convey information about speech.
A common application is at the beginning and finish of a speech. It can also be used
to control other people’s speech by signaling that you want them to stop talking so
you can speak (or perhaps that you want them to respond). An example of this is
starting an eye contact when you are about to start speaking.
6. Define the following:
a. Genre of language
This refers to the different uses of language based on every type of genre. The genres
available are the language of information, persuasion, argumentation, narration or
description, and aesthetics.
b. Language register
The apparent attitude and amount of formality associated with a variety of languages is
referred to as language register. In the study of written language, the relationship between
the writer’s attitude and the variety chosen is crucial. These range on a scale from most
formal to the most informal starting from frozen, formal, consultative, casual, and intimate.
c. Language style
The choice of words employed by a certain group of individuals when speaking is
referred to as language style.
Bureaucracy, the terminology, jargon, and abbreviations used by the government, is an
example of language style.
d. 7. Give examples of the following genres of language
a. Language of information
Examples: Encyclopedia, Reports, Guidelines
“There is a coming typhoon named Melinda”
b. Language of persuasion
Language of persuasion is defined as the language which aims to persuade
or make the audience believe what the sender is trying to say. For example, Authors
employ persuasive language tactics to persuade readers of their point of view and
sway them in their favor. Another is the use of persuasive devices such as hyperbole
(“That is truly amazing!”).
c. Language of argumentation
Argumentation language includes specific vocabulary or turns of phrases
that let the writer explain a point in an impersonal manner. Furthermore, the style
of argumentation required by the question is frequently encoded in the question’s
terms, such as debate, analyze, and assess. Examples of these are debates.
d. Language of narration or description
Common techniques relevant to style, or the language chosen to tell a story, include
metaphors, similes, personification, imagery, hyperbole, and alliteration. Another
specific example is an excerpt from the story of little red riding hood – “Once upon a
time there lived in a certain village a little country girl, the prettiest creature who was
ever seen. Her mother was excessively fond of her; and her grandmother doted on her
still more. This good woman had a little red riding hood made for her. It suited the girl
so extremely well that everybody called her Little Red Riding Hood.”
e. Language of aesthetics
Examples are poems, songs, novels, and plays. A specific example is an excerpt from
Romeo and Juliet – “By a name I know not how to tell thee who I am: My name, dear
saint, is hateful to myself, Because it is an enemy to thee: Had I it written, I would tear
the word. JULIET: My ears have not yet drunk a hundred words Of that tongue’s
uttering, yet I know the sound: Art thou not Romeo, and a Montague?”
8. Explain the meaning of the following language register and give example for each
The use of language is fixed and rather static in this scenario. A frozen
register includes things like the national anthem, school creeds, and The Lord’s
Prayer. It is, in essence, language that does not necessitate any kind of response. An
example of this would be the nightingale pledge – “I solemnly pledge myself before
God and in the presence of this assembly, to pass my life in purity and to practice my
profession faithfully. I will abstain from whatever is deleterious and mischievous, and
will not take or knowingly administer any harmful drug. I will do all in my power to
maintain and elevate the standard of my profession, and will hold in confidence all
personal matters committed to my keeping and all family affairs coming to my
knowledge in the practice of my calling. With loyalty will I endeavor to aid the
physician in his work, and devote myself to the welfare of those committed to my care.”
This term refers to the language used by people who have a close friendship
or bond. This register might include phrases of endearment, slang, and expressions
that are only understood by a limited group of people. An example would be a
statement – “Love, what do you want to eat? Do you want to eat Jabi (Jollibee)?”
This term refers to the language used in official and ceremonial contexts. In
a courtroom, a business meeting, a swearing-in ceremony, an interview, or a
classroom, for example. The language employed in these settings is relatively
rigorous, with a well-documented set of agreed-upon vocabulary. To put it another
way, the language is frequently of a typical sort. An example would be “I would like
to apologise for any inconvenience caused.”
This is the type of language that is used amongst buddies. It’s usually laidback and focused on getting the facts out. In these situations, slang is frequently
utilized. An example would be “Seen my glasses?”
As the word ‘consult’ suggests, this defines language used for the aim of
requesting assistance. It also refers to the communication between a boss and a
subordinate. In both circumstances, one individual is thought to be more
knowledgeable and experienced, while the other is the recipient of that knowledge
and expertise. Examples of this register include the verbal interaction between a
lawyer and a client, a doctor and a patient, an employer and an employee, and a
teacher and a pupil.
9. Define or explain the following item in the FISH Formula of writing:
A. Formal language
Formal language is a language created for use in contexts where normal
language is inappropriate, such as mathematics, logic, or computer programming.
Such languages’ symbols and formulas are in precise syntactic and semantic
relationships with one another.
B. Impersonal language
Impersonal writing considers an ‘object’ rather than a person to be the
subject. ‘The story was written…’ could be written instead of ‘I wrote the story…’
C. Structured Language
Structured writing is a sort of writing that focuses on content structure and
includes analyzing and defining types of content, applying and creating rules around
the structure, validating the rules, and defining styles to apply to the content so it
can be published.
D. Hedged Language
A verbal hedge is a term or phrase used in communication to make a
message less powerful or authoritative. Hedging is another term for it. In everyday
conversation, hedging might be as simple as saying “maybe,” “nearly,” or “slightly.”
It can be beneficial for expressing a strong opinion in a courteous and professional
manner, as in “I would argue that to some extent…” On the other hand, during times
of political turmoil or election season, the method can appear to be utilized

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