What is management and brief management history
What is Management and Brief Management History?
In order to understand the world of management, it is essential to know about its history,
development, functions, goals, and perspectives. It is said that all business organizations on the
planet have a similar story, meaning that they began with an idea that was not yet known with
other business organizations, but their aim became clear as time goes on. The term “management”
can be defined as “any objective that requires the coordination of several people towards a common
goal, which helps to achieve a specific business strategy”.
This definition can be applied to almost all business units and firms, as the idea of managing was
introduced relatively recently. There are plenty of definitions of what management is, but the most
common definition for this task is: “A role, responsibility, or authority that someone who holds
that position has over people under him/her.” (Cascio 25)
In modern times, managers become aware of the existence of the human resources department,
which functions as one of the most important departments within a company. Managers would like
to create systems that are able to help them to do their job properly, to perform at their best, which
will improve their work and give the necessary results faster and cheaper than before. So, managers
try to make working relationships and relationships with their teams better than ever before. These
interactions between companies and employees happen because of communication styles, mutual
expectations, and mutual respect. As well as good relations with customers, suppliers and other
businesses, companies want the best from their employees, so they spend their money and time
trying to find out more about them — their beliefs, aspirations, hopes and dreams, and other
characteristics that make them unique from others.
A team leader should always be ready to listen, talk, teach, advise and support his subordinate
colleagues, even though their subordinates may lack experience. Leaders must maintain high
standards of achievement, consistency, and accountability. They must also be responsive to the
needs of the followers and encourage participation in decision-making. Finally, leaders should
show initiative and self-regulation; they need to demonstrate respect for individual autonomy,
competence, and fairness to their followers; they need to help subordinates to develop their skills,
and they need to lead by example. Team leaders must be confident, optimistic, supportive,
innovative, caring, trustworthy, compassionate, decisive, and efficient, as well as respectful, fair,
participative, and positive (“Leadership Profile,” n.d.). Therefore, a manager should use proper
leadership techniques to accomplish a range of tasks. A person with effective and competent skills
will be able to take care of those who cannot.
It is difficult to define precisely what management is since many factors shape it and depend on
each other. But there are many things that a person does and never gets used to doing. Some
activities in management are repetitive, such as accounting. Others involve making decisions about
how to move forward, whether a project is worth pursuing, or what path to follow. Often the
decisions a manager takes about something complex are based on assumptions about past trends
or events. A manager finds himself/herself in situations where he/she doesn’t know much about
the subject or the task he/she wants to go through, where an expert might be needed to make a wise
choice, and where the costs and benefits are unclear. Because you don’t know yet, you often get
However, if your intuition tells you something different, you take a chance and take action. If
people trust you and you know what to do, then the challenge becomes less daunting. All of these
possibilities are part of every decision, and the choices you make, no matter how simple, complex,
or rare, will shape your decision-making style. Every decision made today will have been made
by choosing the right option. Therefore, the only way to make sure that you have the perfect
decision is to learn how to make the best decisions.
Achievements of Management
As far as career advancements are concerned, one would say everyone has some kind of
accomplishment that makes him/her successful in one or another field of interest. Sometimes
people think it is too easy or too hard to start a new job. While being aware of what motivates us,
we should also pay attention to the qualities that make us happy at work. We all had to deal with
many problems previously and some of us experienced difficult moments in the present.
Although there are some cases when success is inevitable, it is also possible to see yourself doing
things exactly where you saw yourself doing them before the previous success. It is a good feeling
when people witness people who are committed to their jobs, they feel proud of their achievements,
they get pleasure when they feel excited, and they believe that there are chances to succeed in one
or another area. That is called motivation. Do you know what makes others happy and satisfied at
the same time? Motivation is making others satisfied. Nowadays people tend to ask themselves
the question: Does my work make me happy?
If you know what motivates you, and you’re determined to start this process of knowing, you don’t
need motivation. Just think about that! After studying motivational theories and techniques, I
learned that the first one is taking inspiration from other people, who were able to achieve success
and are still struggling. Second, the most desirable type is that of learning, which requires practice
and more often than not is combined with perseverance.
The last thing I want to mention here is that if the motivation process is connected with the desire
to help others, then you should learn to listen to their problems and ideas. When somebody has the
courage to help others, he/she is more likely to be motivated also. On the other hand, if when others
help others, they are disappointed and hurt, then they are reluctant to help themselves, they need
motivation. Of course, the problem is that we don’t actually know how we are going to motivate
ourselves (although that is probably a reasonable assumption).
Motivation is basically finding out what attracts us and attracting us towards it. There are lots of
motives to choose a certain career, a particular job: “I am interested in the financial rewards and
benefits that come from being a top executive; I am driven by the personal satisfaction that comes
from helping people successfully; I work to earn a good reputation; I am motivated by the growth
opportunities, not by the status; … etc.” (“Motivational theory,” 2014).
Whatever motivates us, we are all capable of making good choices, but not necessarily for the
reasons you want to hear. There is no magic formula that makes the difference between being
highly motivating or un-motivating. Many studies prove that people who enjoy their everyday life
are very often more productive at work. They are often happier, more productive, and more willing
to put forth their effort in achieving greater objectives. People who aren’t enthusiastic at all to do
their jobs and who are simply disengaged from their daily lives are unlikely to be very productive.
According to psychologists, this phenomenon can be explained by saying that our psychology has
two parts: one, an internal drive that is responsible for regulating some processes inside the brain,
and two, feelings that are responsible for controlling and regulating those processes. These drives
make us unhappy with whatever we have already done and keep us from starting the next activity.
Thus, when we want to start the next one, we often feel like stopping the current one, that is why
we go back to the old routine. Psychologists believe that these internal and external stimuli make
us choose between two extremes (“Motivational Theory,” 2014). One state of mind, which is often
described as the pursuit of happiness, seeks happiness while the second one is characterized by
unhappiness. Those two states of mind are in opposite directions.
Theories of Motivation
Many authors and researchers have written books and articles on this topic, among them Gary
Locke and Albert Bandura. Although there are different types of motivation, some are widely
discussed in terms of four main categories: intrinsic and extrinsic, rational and emotional. Intrinsic,
according to Plato, is when people strive after something for their sake, without expecting anything
in return from it. Extrinsic motivation is when people seek to gain something for their own gain.
Rationale, according to Bandura, is when people want to make things better, not worse. Emotional
is when people seek approval from others, rather than just themselves, even if it means hurting
themselves (“Motivational Theory,” 2014).
Although there are several variations of each one, those are really common theories of motivation.
These theories can be used to describe various behaviors and motives. The basic idea is that human
beings want to feel loved, appreciated, respected, and honored, which makes people do things they
are afraid of doing. Human beings are inherently motivated. Moreover, there are both advantages
and disadvantages. Self-actualization is often related to self-esteem and confidence. In this sense,
it is easier for someone who is arrogant and indifferent to help others than for ones who think on
their feet. The greatest disadvantage comes in relation to self-esteem when a person feels that
he/she is not worthy of being respected and admired.
This happens even when the fact that he/she has higher value and worth than others has to be
mentioned. This kind of behavior leads to people living in the shadow of the other person. That is
why it is quite important to know about these differences and similarities when understanding what
motivates people so that you choose the right goals for people who need motivation.
Motivation is one of the fundamental aspects of organizational performance. Successful managers
want to encourage their subordinates to do their best.