Work 1

National Culture
Outline some of the differences between Chinese and Pakistani culture?
Power distance
The tactics that are being executed in China are fragmented, and there is no
guarantee against superiors abusing their power. People are generally enthusiastic about
people’s abilities to lead and take initiative, and formal authority and repercussions have
an impact on them. In contrast to Pakistan, where it is impossible to determine a
preference for power distance, the cultural dimension model, which blends
individualism and collectivism, is utilized to start the research at the cultural and
educational levels. Chinese and Pakistanis both think top-down, however Pakistanis
prefer to think from the bottom up. Pakistanis arrive at higher-level conclusions based
on quantitative data, logical deduction, and empirical facts.
People in China work for the collective rather than for themselves, resulting in a
strongly collectivist culture. Recruitment and promotion decisions are influenced by ingroup motives, with closer in-groups receiving priority. The company’s employee
loyalty is minimal. Pakistan, on the other hand, is regarded as an individualist culture,
with members of the group demonstrating a strong lifetime commitment to one another
because they are more structured, relying on logical thinking and the acquisition of
quantitative facts, and radiate outward from a central point, demonstrating strict and
orderly behavior. Follow-up work will be hampered by expatriates who do not
understand Pakistani culture and education, or Pakistani staff who do not understand
Chinese culture. Before gradually deepening and refining problems, Chinese people
consider them from a macro, general, and intuitive perspective. Unstructured thinking
is prevalent among Chinese people, and it is frequently based on intuition, experience,
and self-judgment of reality. Pakistanis, on the other hand, are more structured, focused
on logical thinking and quantitative data collection, and dispersing outward from a
central point in a disciplined and orderly manner. If expats are unable to deal with
Pakistani culture and educational backgrounds, or if Pakistani side personnel are unable
to understand the Chinese way of doing things, it will be tough to continue the follow
up job
China is a Masculine society that places a high value on achievement. The will to
succeed is mirrored in the fact that many Chinese prioritize work over family and
leisure. People who provide services will work till the wee hours of the morning.
Leisure time is no longer as important as it once was. Migrant farm workers will leave
their family behind in faraway places in order to find better work and remuneration in
the city. This potential collision of cultures of Chinese laborers dispatched to Pakistan
by BRC occurs on two levels: first, within the Pakistani railroad construction project,
where it is hard to determine their masculinity or gender. Sadness, tension, and anxiety
will eventually take control of your life. They may begin to mistrust their own ideals
and future growth prospects. Pakistanis hold the highest regard for the legal system and
standards. If the ambiguity isn’t successfully addressed, ideological and cultural divides
could stymie the project’s progress, leading to its cancellation. Only when numerous
cultures are fully merged, allowing personnel of all races and cultural backgrounds to
fully cooperate and appreciate one another under the same management structure, can
the value of talents be maximized.
Uncertainty avoidance
Uncertainty in China Because laws and norms can be interpreted in a variety of
ways depending on the context, and pragmatism is real, avoidance is minimal.
Westerners may find it challenging to comprehend the Chinese language’s ambiguous
connotations. The Chinese people are adaptive and courageous. In comparison to
Pakistan, avoidance is used to prevent ambiguity. Because this society has an emotional
need for norms, it has stringent belief and behavior standards; it is intolerant of
unconventional ideas and behavior. Employees must be busy and work hard, precision
and punctuality are required, creativity is discouraged, and security is a primary
motivation. In the cultural dimension model, the human relationships component is
explored in conjunction with the concept of uncertainty avoidance. Communication
takes up more than 90% of the time and effort when it comes to project implementation.
Accountability, respect, fairness, and honesty are the four principles of project
communication articulated by PMI, the American Project Management Institute.
Long term orientation
Chinas culture is based on practicality. People in practical civilizations believe that
truth is highly dependent on situation, environment, and time. They demonstrate an
ability to easily cultural content to changing circumstances, a strong proclivity to save
and invest, thriftiness, and tenacity in reaching goals compared to pakistani culture
prefers to uphold long-standing traditions and customs while viewing societal change
with mistrust. Foreign residents in the host culture will confront a number of difficulties,
including verbal and nonverbal communication. Due to the deep connotation of
language and words, as well as their diverse means of expression, miscommunications
and cultural disputes are common. In project management, these communication values
and guidelines have international currency. Forming a “harmonious” situation in project
management is very important to the Chinese, and they pay more attention to the
application of subtle relationships in interpersonal relationships. Everything should be
done harmoniously, with the other party’s “face” in mind. At the same time, there is an
emphasis on “standards and systems,” but it is also important to consider “human
feelings and reasoning.” Lawler (1986) suggests that interpersonal communication
balances law, logic, and emotion
China is a closed society. Societies with poor scores in this area tend to be cynical and
pessimistic. The Restrained cultures also value leisure time less and have more control
over meeting their basic requirements than the Indulgent civilizations. Indulging
oneself is unethical, according to this opinion. Disparities in communication methods
and languages cause cross-cultural conflict Stereotypes are another driver of cultural
As a result, Pakistan is a fairly constrained society, with little emphasis on leisure and
self-indulgence. Indulging oneself is unethical, according to this opinion. Second,
consider the impact of international engineering endeavors on society.In order to
achieve this Hofstede (1980) emphasized that “ the project team to visit Pakistan to
learn about Pakistans external social environment, including local subcontractors,
material suppliers, local strict convictions, laws and norms, political meetings, and
government offices”.
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Virtual Teams
The term “virtual” is well-known to us all. During the current crisis, the BRC
promotes the project process via online virtual teams. That is, team members are
dispersed all over the place, rarely or never meeting each other, using the Internet,
telephone, e-mail, visual conferencing, and other communication tools to complete
work tasks and achieve project goals through cooperation and support. The biggest
problem for BRC project managers is that this non-meeting and scattered way of
working is difficult to manage. The process is difficult to grasp, making it easy to cause
disconnected work and schedule delays, and can even put the project out of control.
Communication, according to the project management knowledge system, is the
most hardest challenge for online communities to overcome. When team members are
working together to complete a project, a sense of isolation can easily develop. This
can be caused by a lack of development practices among team members, everyone
“caring only for oneself,” problems not receiving adequate support and attention, and
thus a diminished sense of responsibility for the project. Furthermore, due to the
communication barrier, everyone’s understanding of the goal is prone to deviation and
even embarrassment in the cooperation between each other “to act in a way that defeats
one’s purpose.”
What matters most is that work tasks be assigned. A good job task description
should adhere to the smart principles of being clear, measurable, achievable, relevant,
and time-bound. Only team members can understand and implement goals that adhere
to the smart principles.
Furthermore, there is a requirement to foster a team environment actively. Virtual
environments and home offices provide greater flexibility and convenience at work, but
when a large number of activities are performed independently by each person, from
accepting the task to completing the work to delivering the results. Huselid (2013)
emphasizes that project managers in BRC should take the initiative to strengthen the
team atmosphere, such as using social software to form project workgroups and
announcing the project at any time. For instance, you could use social networking
software to create project workgroups and keep the project status updated so that
everyone is aware of the team’s existence.
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Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism.
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Management [J]. Academic Journal of Interdisciplinary Studies.
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Lilian, S.C., 2014. Virtual teams: Opportunities and challenges for e-leaders. ProcediaSocial and Behavioral Sciences, 110, pp.1251-1261.
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Nydegger, R. and Nydegger, L., 2010. Challenges in managing virtual teams. Journal
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identifying key factors in effectiveness and failure. Journal of European Industrial
Hill, N. and Bartol, K., 2018. Five ways to improve communication in virtual teams.
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International Staffing
The most convenient
way to expedite the
project’s construction
schedule is to export
many domestic
technicians and skilled
personnel to Pakistan.
However, in the global
environment of the
Covid-19, this is not
only risky and costly,
but it is also
incompatible with the
goal of localized
management. As a
result, BRC’s railroad
construction projects in
Pakistan have changed
the previous mode of
primarily Chinese
people, abandoned the
notion that local people
cannot do large-scale
construction, given full
play to the role of local
employees, absorbed
and trained a large
number of excellent
local employees
through various means,
and realized the full
localization of project
construction operation
and execution level. To
maximize local
employees’ motivation
and creativity.
The Human Resources
Department will create
an overall training plan
for the Pakistan railroad
project and implement it
at three levels: the first is
technical training for
local employees during
project implementation
so that each employee
has the technical skills
required for the job,
masters the technology,
and operating procedures
of each process, and
trains railroad
construction technicians
for Pakistan; the second
level is training for
railroad techs, and the
third level is training for
railroad techs to train
railroad technicians
needed during railway
operations to train
railroad operators for
Pakistani universities in
establishing railroad
engineering majors to
train high-level railroad
engineering professionals
practice, is necessary to
make up for deficiencies
through unified training
to reduce the possibility
of problems and promote
the project to proceed
more smoothly for the
potential and common
problems found in work.
There is a need to
conduct adequate
research to solidify the
training content that it
must repeat over a long
period, and subtleties
should be adjusted at any
time according to the
actual situation to
facilitate more efficient
implementation of the
same training in the
future More technical
breakthroughs for
Pakistani locals will
necessitate continued
training efforts.
Local staff should be
guaranteed to work
efficiently. Because of the
cultural and legal
disparities between
pakistan and china, the
diverse working styles of
pakistani employees may
cause inefficiency in their
work and hurt the work of
employees sent from their
nations. On the one hand,
it should follow project
countries labor laws and
systems to avoid
unnecessary disputes and
problems; on the other
hand, we ought to
endeavor to set up
amazing inward venture
the executives rules and
guidelines appropriate for
project development
needs, just as powerful
execution assessment,
award, and discipline
principles, and negotiate
contract conditions at the
time of employment to
clarify specific
requirements and strictly
implement them.
Ostroff C, 2000. Human Resource Management and Firm Performance Practices,
Systems and Contingencies. Working Paper, Arizona State University.
Zhao X, Deng X, Sui P L, (2014). Developing Competitive Advantages in Political
Risk Management for International Construction Enterprises[J]. Journal of
Construction Engineering & Management.
Chen C, Wang Q, Martck I, (2016). International Market Selection Model for Large
Chinese Contractors[J]. Journal of Construction Engineering & Management.
Isidor, R., Schwens, C. and Kabst, R., 2011. Human resource management and early
internationalization: is there a leap-frogging in international staffing?. The
International Journal of Human Resource Management, 22(10), pp.2167-2184.
Drachal, K., 2014. What do we know from EPRG model?. Ecoforum Journal, 3(2),
Shore, B. and Fawzy, C., 2019, July. The Inclusive MNC: Repatriating the Expatriate.
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Pre-departure Training
Pre-departure training for expatriates is a broad term for a programme that briefs soon
to be expatriates on what to expect when living and working abroad. Well delivered
training allows employees to personalise learnings to anticipate and plan for challenges
they and their family may face when they move abroad. There are a range of benefits
of a holistic training plan for expats as they settle in to their role abroad:
Clear understanding of their role: employees who are sent abroad for the right reasons
are likely to be most successful. Pre-assignment training that clearly lays out the
primary goals of their assignment is likely to help employees meet expectations with
greater ease.
Better integration: the inability to settle into their new country is cited by most
expatriate failures as a key reason for their return home
BRC provides centralized online training for employees traveling abroad, i.e.,
informal learning via online videos delivered via the Internet. Because there is no need
for a series of costs such as space rental, the cost of training can be reduced to some
extent while still obtaining good training results.
Employees can develop a sense of responsibility through this informal training. An
employee with a strong sense of responsibility is worthy of a company’s attention and
reuse, whether at work or in life. Professional skills are required to train BRC Pakistan
railroad construction project staff, but the project does not require staff who lack a sense
of responsibility. Sefuchi (2017) emphasized that when human resource management
personnel work in a foreign country, they should be more particular and serious about
their work, according to the author. The training should be extremely detailed in order
to instill a strong feeling of mission and responsibility in the participants themselves.
Only then will they be able to play the most significant role in the development of the
BRC railroad.
Second, this informal learning training can help employees develop a sense of
collective honor. Involve the BRC project’s key leaders in recording the informal
training learning video. The manager of an international engineering project, the
collective’s leader, plays a self-evident role. It is possible to strengthen employees’ sense
of collective honor through informal training by allowing them to experience more of
the power to the pride that the team brings to the individual. , Nada Krypa (2017).
On the other hand, it should do employees’ formal learning as much as possible
through offline practical work. The offline practical work is conducive to developing
composite talents capable of fighting in the real world. The rapid development of the
information age, as the BRC management, necessitates not only organizational and
management skills but also focuses on the skills and techniques of employees in
external communication. Miller (1956) emphasizes on the importance of holding mock
communication sessions to improve employees’ skills in emergencies, understand and
learn foreign etiquette, experience exotic customs, broaden their international horizons,
and achieve elegant conversation and an unpretentious demeanor.
Furthermore, offline formal learning can help employees cultivate innovative
thinking. The word innovation can stand in any era, BRC human resource management
manager, in training, pay attention to the training of staff spontaneity, creativity, not just
indoctrination, to leave more room for the trainees to play, the formation of their mode
of thinking, their wisdom into the construction of Pakistan’s railroad projects.
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Managing expatriate performance
The core meaning of performance management of international engineering
projects in multicultural contexts is to use inclusive management to overcome conflicts
caused by heterogeneous cultures based on familiarity with the host country’s human
Most Chinese foreign contracting enterprises rely on traditional performance
appraisal and evaluation, particularly some immature international operating
construction enterprises, whose performance management indexes are single and rely
more on financial index evaluation, which is a lagging and past evaluation dimension
that cannot effectively implement enterprise strategic orientation and objectively and
comprehensively reflect international engine performance. A comprehensive
performance management assessment index system associated with medium and longterm development plans, according to Ashton (2017), should be developed by mature
multinational construction businesses in the western world. They will fully consider
factors such as serving bilateral economic and trade cooperation or bilateral diplomacy
while pursuing the project’s core “three objectives.”
BRC uses the balanced scorecard performance management model. The Balanced
Scorecard is a comprehensive performance management method based on the
company’s development strategy and has a wide range of application scenarios for
organizations with strategic importance. The overall benefits are frequently greater than
the project’s pure financial benefits, and the Balanced Scorecard can precisely quantify
these benefits. The Balanced Scorecard can address the strategic need for multi-level
and multi-faceted performance management, thereby changing the traditional rough
performance management mode and unifying short-term and long-term interests.
BRC integrates cross-cultural management into corporate development strategy,
focusing on developing world-class brand culture and soft power while shaping worldclass hard power of the company, enhancing the role of corporate culture as a paving
stone, booster, and aggregating force for the company’s overall development strategy.
We use culture as the foundation for defining vision, strategy, and business processes,
as well as for building service and product brands, as well as for increasing social
responsibility management and practice. We believe that corporate culture should be
integrated into management, brand creation, and community involvement.
Establish and improve the cultural integration mechanism, enhance the cultural
identity of local employees, and improve Chinese and foreign employees’ perception
and recognition of the enterprise’s core culture while carrying out railroad construction
projects in Pakistan. To overcome the difficulties and challenges posed by cultural
differences in the implementation and organizational performance of international
engineering projects, we conduct an in-depth investigation and analysis of the current
situation of local culture and customs, fully understand and adapt to the local cultural
value system, and grasp the commonality and characteristics of both Chinese and
foreign cultures.
Ashton A S, 2017. How Human Resources Management Best Practice Influences
Employee Satisfaction and Job Retention in the Thai Hotel Industry[J]. Journal of
Human Resources in Hospitality & Tourism.
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Telecommunications. Human Resource Management, 39(2‐3), pp.267-275.
Jassawalla, A.R., Asgary, N. and Sashittal, H.C., 2006. Managing expatriate: The role
of mentors. International Journal of Commerce and Management.
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Expatriate Risk
The management of BRC’s railroad projects in Pakistan is a comprehensive
management system vulnerable to various types of risks arising from project dynamic
changes and external factors. The implementation of good risk management and
countermeasures is critical.
For starters, political risk refers to the possibility of war, unrest, and regime change
in BRC’s railroad projects in Pakistan. Terrorism currently threatens the security of
several countries, and tensions in the Middle East and neighboring regions have
increased the number of unstable factors in the international situation. Raymond, Bany,
and Patrick (2016) stressed that the risks posed by unexpected events and political
unrest can result in massive economic losses and harm BRC railroad construction
The second type of risk is a technical risk. This risk is related to the various
technical issues that BRC is encountering while developing this railway construction
project. Although the current state of construction technology in BRC has reached a
certain level, compliance with international technical standards is difficult in practice;
this happens due to China’s lack of integration into international standards in terms of
certain technical standards and language barriers. To varying degrees, all of these
factors can impact the project plan’s implementation and the expected economic goals.
Thirdly, environmental risks are inevitable in BRC iron construction projects,
which are multinational projects. These are beyond the usual risk factors and can
severely impact the project, incur additional capital expenditures for the contractor, or
even cause the project to be interrupted.
When determining the risks of an international construction project, the BRC must
combine expert surveys, SWOT analysis, and other methods to conduct field research
and studies to identify and categorize the main risks associated with the project. Details
can be found in the table below.
Main Risk Factors with BRC construction
Risk Category
Risk Factors
Unstable relations with china
Macro Risk Factors
policy changes
Pakistan-related laws, technical
standards, and natural disasters.
Unreasonable design solutions
Technical Risk Factors
and low technical means
Risk aversion is necessary for BRC’s railroad building projects in Pakistan; this is
an escape strategy when the project’s risk is too high, and no alternative mitigating
option exists. To avoid danger, actively resign from the project or modify its goals and
ambitions. Preventative Measures This railroad development project has political,
economic, and social risks. Risk assessment involves detecting threats, gathering data,
and consulting specialists. It can achieve risk management.
Raymond A. Noe, JoFhn R. Hollenbeck, Bany Gerhart, Patrick M. Wright,
2016 .Human Resource Management Gaining a Competitive Advantage [M]. Renmin
University of China Publishing House.
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methods for sustainable energy management with sewage sludge in Turkey based on
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alternatives in construction project management[J].Journal of Civil Engineering and
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conceptual approach. The International Journal of Human Resource Management,
25(4), pp.539-557.
Faeth, P.C. and Kittler, M.G., 2020. Expatriate management in hostile environments
from a multi-stakeholder perspective–a systematic review. Journal of Global Mobility:
The Home of Expatriate Management Research.
Basit, S.H., 2019. Terrorizing the CPEC: managing transnational militancy in China–
Pakistan relations. The Pacific Review, 32(4), pp.694-724.
Zaman, U., Nawaz, S., Anjam, M., Anwar, R.S. and Siddique, M.S., 2021. Human
resource diversity management (HRDM) practices as a coping mechanism for
xenophobia at transnational workplace: a case of a multi-billion-dollar economic
corridor. Cogent Business & Management, 8(1), p.1883828.
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Belt and Road Initiative (pp. 307-327). Springer, Cham.
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